Sugar Industry I I

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<ul><li> 1. Sugar Manufacturing Process: <ul><li>Growing &amp; Harvesting the Cane. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Cane preparation for Milling. </li></ul> <ul><li>Milling. </li></ul> <ul><li>Clarification. </li></ul> <ul><li>Evaporation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Crystallization. </li></ul> <ul><li>Centrifugation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Drying. </li></ul> <ul><li>Refining. </li></ul> <p> 2. Sugar Manufacturing Process </p> <ul><li>Cane weighting: - </li></ul> <ul><li>The cane is generally weighted on large platform scale in the transport unit in which it is received at the mill-railway car, trailer cart o the like, where direct weighting is impracticable. </li></ul> <p> 3. 4. </p> <ul><li>Cane cleaning equipment: -</li></ul> <ul><li>As apart of the cane carrier or auxiliary to it, is a process of cleaning the cane bywater from associated mud resulting due to harvesting.</li></ul> <p> 5. </p> <ul><li>Preparations of Cane for milling: - </li></ul> <ul><li>The milling process may be separated into tow steps, thepreparationof the cane by breaking down the hard structure and purring the cell, and the actual grinding the cane. The preparation of the cane is accomplished in several ways:</li></ul> <ul><li>1. By revolving cane knifes that cut the cane into chips but extracted no juice. </li></ul> <ul><li>2. By shredders that tear the cane into shreds but extract no juice. </li></ul> <ul><li>3. By crushers that break and crush the structure of the cane, extracting a large proportion of the juice. </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>4. By combination of any or all of the previous ways. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 6. Milling machinery: - </p> <ul><li>Milling Machinery is composed of three rollers arranged in triangular form.</li></ul> <ul><li>A set of three to seven machines. </li></ul> <ul><li>Each mill unit is commonly driven by separate motor power, steam engine, electric motor, or steam turbine.</li></ul> <ul><li>The three rolls are known respectively as the top roll, the cane roll (entering) or feed roll, the bagasse roll or discharge roll.</li></ul> <ul><li>Adding water or thin juice to the bagasse after each mill dilutes the content juice and increases the extraction as this juice is expressed.</li></ul> <p> 7. Milling machinery: - 8. Clarification </p> <ul><li>The primary object of the clarification is to remove from the juice the maximum quantity of impurities. </li></ul> <ul><li>The degree of clarification has great bearing on thesubsequent stationsof the factory, affecting thepan boiling ,the centrifuging, the quality of the products , and most important of all,the yield of raw sugar .</li></ul> <p> 9. Clarification </p> <ul><li>Added Chemicals as follows: </li></ul> <ul><li>1. Soluble phosphates (P 2 O 5 ) </li></ul> <ul><li>clearer juice. </li></ul> <ul><li>fewer lime salts in clarified juice.</li></ul> <ul><li>more rapid settling. </li></ul> <ul><li>faster mud filtration.</li></ul> <ul><li>better sugar. </li></ul> <p> 10. Clarification </p> <ul><li>2.Polymer flocculants: </li></ul> <ul><li>increases settling rate. </li></ul> <ul><li>reduces mud volume. </li></ul> <ul><li>decreases poly in cake. </li></ul> <ul><li>and most important increases the clarity of the clarified juice.</li></ul> <ul><li>3.Lime:(as milk) in order to raise pH to 7.</li></ul> <p> 11. Clarification </p> <ul><li>Result of clarification:</li></ul> <ul><li>The clarification process divides the whole juice into tow portions: - </li></ul> <ul><li>1 . The clarification that comprises 80 to 90% of the original juice, almost invariable, goes to the evaporators without further treatment. </li></ul> <ul><li>2. The precipitated settling, the scrums or mud waters; which are filtered after various methods of treatment. </li></ul> <p> 12. Filtration: </p> <ul><li>In filtration process the rotary -type vacuum filter in common use.</li></ul> <ul><li>The filter consists of rotating drum covered with perforated plate of copper or other metal, which dips into a bath containing the mud water.</li></ul> <ul><li>The filter divided into four sections. </li></ul> <ul><li>Hot water and Bagacillo are added to the mud to increase filtration efficiency. </li></ul> <ul><li>Filtration Result:</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Clarified Juice Sent directly to the evaporators.</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Filter Cake. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 13. Filtration: 14. Evaporation &amp; Crystallization:</p> <ul><li>Evaporation of water from the sugar solution to yield a final crystalline product. </li></ul> <ul><li>The evaporation is done in tow stages:</li></ul> <ul><li>1. First in an evaporator station to concentrate the solution. </li></ul> <ul><li>2. Second in Evapo- Crystallizer to crystallize the sugar from solution.</li></ul> <p> 15. Evaporation: </p> <ul><li>Removes about 90% of the water from the clarified juice;</li></ul> <ul><li>The multiple-effect is usually extended to three, four, and more effects. </li></ul> <ul><li>Evaporation increasing the juice solids from about 15 Brix to about 65-70 Brix. Which is the Syrup. </li></ul> <p> 16. Evaporation: 17. Evapo- Crystallizers: </p> <ul><li>There fore the function of evapo-crystallizer is to produce satisfactory sugar crystals from syrup </li></ul> <ul><li>(seed grain) to serve as the nuclei for the sugar syrup. </li></ul> <ul><li>When Brix reaches 78-80, crystals begin to appear and the nature of the material changes. </li></ul> <ul><li>Its then called massecuite. </li></ul> <p> 18. Centrifugal Machines: </p> <ul><li>The basic function of the Centrifugal machines is to the crystals in the massecuite from the surrounding molasses or syrup by centrifugal force. </li></ul> <ul><li>The Raw sugar is then sent to dryers or refining unit according to the type of desired final product. </li></ul> <ul><li>Molasses is by-product which is used as a raw material for other products. </li></ul> <p> 19. Dryers: </p> <ul><li>The wet raw sugar from centrifuges goes to rotary drier to remove the water from the wet sugar to reduce moisture content to 0.5-2%; using hot air at 110C which flow counter currently with sugar. </li></ul> <p> 20. Dryers:</p>