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Page 1: Communication


Page 2: Communication

Communis ------ Latin word

Meaning - common for all.To share

A common activity

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Why communication?

Express oneself Explain Strengthen mutual sense of commitment Building relationship Satisfy human needs Bridge gap To inform (get & give)

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Why communication?

To change behaviour To get action To ensure understanding To persuade Career enhancement


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Coke advt in the Middle East

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Need/Purpose of communication Inform

Advice Order Motivate Negotiate Persuade Warn Educate Motivate

Suggest Ask Answer Convey Train Command Counseling Raise morale Appreciate Simply

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Common ways of communication?

Speaking Writing Visual Body language

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To send clear message To receive & correctly understand message

We use Verbal messages (speak) Para verbal messages (tone, pitch, pace of

voice) Non verbal messages (primary)

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Features Unavoidable Continuous process Two way traffic Role of perception (use 5 senses) Universality Social process Multidimensional Multipurpose Transactivity

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Role of communication

Foundation for healthy relationship (create & maintain)

Strengthen mutual sense of commitment Bridge gap where there is

misunderstanding Binding an organisation together (formal

and informal)

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Constituents of communication process

SenderChannel/ medium

Decode Receiver

Encode (message)



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Types of communication1. One way and two way

2. Verbal and Non - verbal

3. Formal and Informal

4. Interpersonal and Intrapersonal

5. Mass communication

6. Meta communication

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One way and two way communication


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Two way communication 1)

Encode/ message

Decode as


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Verbal & Non verbal communication

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Verbal communication

Both oral and written

Always accompanied by non verbal communication

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Verbal communicationOral/ Dayadic Written

(with people present) Face to face Telephonic Interview Group discussion Negotiation Meeting

(with people not present) Letters Notice Memos Circular Report Minutes

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Non verbal communication

Communicating without words Symbols, Gestures and Facial expressions Independent of verbal communication Involuntary and unconscious Difficult to control


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Types of Non verbal communication

1) Kinesics

2) Proxemics

3) Paralanguage

4) Physical contact

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Research on Body Language



Impact of message - Albert Mehabian 7% verbal

38% vocal

55% non verbal

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kinesics Study of body movements to judge the

emotions expressed through different parts of the body.

Facial expressions and eyes Gestures Postures Physical appearance

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Facial expressionExpression Interpretation

Shifting eyes •Hiding something

Rapid nodding of head •Impatience

Trembl ing l ips •Emotional disturbance

Steady eye contact •Active listener

S m i l i n g f a c e •Friendly

Repeated mutual eye contact

•Intense love and affection

Raised eyebrows •Disbelief, Amazement

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Factors influencing body language Biological : skin colour, body shapes,

and our constant effort to adjust our body to environment,….

Habitual : by learning, occupational requirement, speaking style,…

Cultural : not sitting cross legged, custom of receiving guests, talking to superiors,…

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Physical movements of the body parts like hands, legs, head or torso.

Closely related to personality

Pointing fingers shows authority Pulling body backward for rejection or fear Shrugging shoulders shows indifference

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3 Types of Gesture by Anthropologists

Instinctive gesture (baby clinging to mother)

Coded gesture (military,firemen,music,..)

Acquired gesture (cultural& ethnic influence)

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Biting nails Slouching Forward leaning Standing erect Angular distance ( o – 180 degrees) Unconscious movements forward,

sideward, backward bend,….

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The way we hold ourselves (stand/ sit,..) Indicate our feelings & thoughts, attitudes

& health Affect our thinking process Most truthful expression comes from the

torso - than arms and legs (angular distance reveals our feelings

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Four types of postures

Forward lean = attentiveness & interest Turning away = refusing Expansion = proud/ arrogant Forward leaning body, bowed head,

drooping shoulders, sunken chest = depressed / dejected

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Appearance Indication of inner state of emotions Depends on local custom and culture of

the community Grooming & personal hygiene

contribute greatly Makes the first impression

Clothing, jewellery, cosmetics, footwear, handbag, umbrella, briefcase, etc.,

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Proxemics(“personal space language”)

Study of using the space around

Intimate 11/2 ft Personal 11/2 - 4 ft Social 4 - 12 ft Public 12 ft and above

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The non verbal aspects of spoken word Relates to voice - tone, pitch, accent,

speed, intonation, stress on a particular word, etc.,

“How” a word is spoken than ‘What’ The way we use our voice is and sounds

we make

(Silence – a very important aspect !!)

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Practice!!!!!!!!!!! EX 1: I am a good student I am a good student I am a good student I am a good student EX 2: Count from 1 – 10 Each time expressing different emotional state

(happy, angry, anxious,…)

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EX 3: Were you there last night? Were you there last night? Were you there last night? Were you there last night? EX 4: Sounds like mmmm, ouch, oh!oh!,….

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Physical context

The layout and design of a building Its decoration like colour, furniture,

etc., Strong impression on positive and

negative feelings

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Difference between verbal & non- verbal communication

1. Use of words

2. Use of language

3. always accompanied by non verbal

4. Voluntary / deliberate

1. Use of symbols

2. Other than the language - (pictures, maps, graphs,….)

3. Independent of verbal communication (red = danger, nodding head,..)

4. Involuntary & unconscious

5. Understanding non verbal helps to improve oral & written communication

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Formal and informal communication

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Horizontal communication Communication between departments/

people in the same level in the hierarchy

Most frequently used channel Shared among workers, clerks,

supervisors, … can use coffee break sessions

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To promote understanding and coordination Not much imagination required Small organisations manage well as these

functions are done at a closer proximity with a few people

Eg – imagine a situation where purchase dpt keeps purchasing materials not reqired urgently, stores dpt keeps reporting shortage, …

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Sometimes it is discouraged for the fear of workers getting too friendly with one another

Methods used : Oral : face to face – very effective Written : reports, letters, memorandum

Short means of communication - convenient

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Formal communication

Upward, Downward and Lateral/ Horizontal

Flows through line and authority Recorded /documented Flows in one direction only Genuine and authentic Red tapism/ Bureaucracy Dilutes accuracy

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Informal communication (grapevine) Basically a horizontal communication But doesn’t follow any set patterns

Spontaneous Multidirectional No records Very fast Provides vent to employees

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Types of Grapevine - (Keith Davis – research on grapevine)

I. Single stand – passing of information to the long line of persons to the ultimate recipient (A - B, B –C, C-D,…)

II. Gossip – A tells everyone. It works like wheel where A is in the centre and passes on the information to others

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Probability : A randomly tells others and others pass on the information

Cluster : A tells selected persons – who

may in turn tell others selectively

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Importance Safety valve - works as - pressure vent Active grapevine shows that workers are

interested in their associates Brings in solidarity & cohesiveness Properly used it can raise the morale of

employees Supplement to other channels Quick / speedy transmission Provides feedback - to know the pulse of


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Interpersonal and intrapersonal

Interpersonal intrapersonal

Two or more persons

Group (committee, etc.,)

Public meetings

Internal dialogue within the mind

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Meta Communication

Implies meaning conveyed by

* tone of voice

* choice of words

* silence

* omission

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Meta Communication

A message communicated not through words, but along with words.

Can be intentional or unintentional

- “Try to reach the airport, well on time”

- “Haven’t finished the project yet? Fantastic!!”