Ciat asti seminar_may2011

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  • 1. Collecting and Analyzing Agricultural R&D Data in Latin America: The ASTI Initiative Presentation at CIAT, Cali 24 May 2011 Nienke Beintema Head, ASTI initiative, IFPRI-Rome office

2.

  • Introduction to current ASTI program
  • Agricultural R&D investment and capacity trends in Latin America
  • Recent evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Planned expansion and collaboration with CIAT

Outline of Presentation 3.

  • R&D is a major contributor to economic growth and poverty reduction: Greater investments are crucial for productivity growth
  • Monitoring and benchmarking inputs, outputs, and performance of agricultural R&D is essential for improved policy formulation and decision-making
  • But national S&T indicators are still scarce in developing countriesand, when available, difficult to extract agricultural S&T indicators

Importance of Agricultural R&D 4.

  • Collects and analyzes national-level data on investment and human resource capacity and institutional developments in agricultural R&D:
    • Focus on developing countries
    • Institutional survey rounds (primary data)
    • Only input indicators (for now)
  • Aim is to provide:
    • Trends over time at country and regional levels
    • Comparisons across countries and regions

Background to ASTI 5.

  • Collaborative network with large number of national, regional, and international partners; led by IFPRI
  • Typically in close collaboration with the main agricultural research institutes or, in a few cases, with consultants (co-authors/publishers of country note/brief)
  • Covering government, higher education, nonprofit (and private for-profit) R&D agencies
  • Frequent improvements made in data collection procedures and tools

How Data is Collected 6. Portfolio of ASTI Data at Country Level

  • Agricultural R&D investment and human resource capacity
  • Institutional arrangements and changes affecting agricultural R&D
  • Funding sources of agricultural R&D
  • Degree qualifications of agricultural researchers
  • Female participation in agricultural R&D
  • Agricultural R&D focus in terms of crops, livestock, and other commodities, also themes

7. Country Coverage

  • Sub-Saharan Africa: 2008
  • South Asia: 2009 (ongoing)
  • Other Asia-Pacific: 2002/03
  • Latin America: 2006
  • Middle East/North Africa: 2002
  • OECD and China: external data

8. Current ASTI Outputs

  • Country notes
  • Regional and subregional reports
  • Data in-focus sheets
  • Datasets and country profiles
  • Country/regional/other seminars and presentations
  • Analytical assessments
  • ASTI website (Data Tool, country pages)
  • Blog
  • Press releases/media outreach

9.

  • Introduction to current ASTI program
  • Agricultural R&D investment and capacity trends in Latin America
  • Recent evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Planned expansion and collaboration with CIAT

Outline of Presentation 10. Longterm Investment and Capacity Trends in Latin America & Caribbean

  • In 2006, LAC invested about $3 billion (in 2005 PPP prices) on public agricultural R&D and employed roughly 19,100 agricultural researchers (in full-time equivalents)

11. Average Annual Growth Rates in Spending, 1996-2006 (14 Countries)

  • However, growth has been very uneven across countries, with some experiencing rapid increases in agricultural R&D spending and others facing severe cuts

12. Intensity ratios of Public Agricultural R&D Spending, 2006 (15 Countries)

  • Average regional intensity ratio was 1.1% in 2006, but excluding Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, the average ratio declined to 0.7%

> 1.0% 0.5% - 1.0% < 0.5% Uruguay (2.0%) Belize (0.9%) Honduras (0.4%) Brazil (1.7%) Nicaragua (0.9%) Dominican Republic (0.3%) Argentina (1.3%) Costa Rica (0.9%) Paraguay (0.2%) Mexico (1.2%) Colombia (0.5%) El Salvador (0.1%) Chile (1.2%) Panama (0.5%) Guatemala (0.1%) 13. Funding Sources of Main Government and Nonprofit Agencies, 2006 (15 Countries) Brazil data only include funding data for Embrapa and APTA.

  • Sources of agricultural R&D funding have become increasingly diversified and differ largely from one LAC country to the next

14. Diversity in Institutional Distributionacross Latin America Argentina Mexico Colombia Chile

  • The role of the INIAs in agricultural R&D (in terms of capacity) has steadily declined over the 2.5 decades

15.

  • Introduction to current ASTI program
  • Agricultural R&D investment and capacity trends in Latin America
  • Recent evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Planned expansion and collaboration with CIAT

Outline of Presentation 16. Longterm Investment and Capacity Trends in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Overall, agricultural R&D investments and capacity increased by 20 percent during 2001-08

17. Africas Spending Compared with Brazil,China, and India

  • Brazil and India both spent slightly less on public agricultural than Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole

18. Main Drivers of African Spending Growth, 2001-08

  • Growth occurredin a few countries and focused on boosting low salaries and rehabilitating infrastructure/equipment

19. Who is Lagging Behind?

  • 2001-08 marked by decline in 13 countries (including many in francophone West Africa); Decline started in 1990s for some

20. Africas Investment Challenge: Underinvestment

  • In 2008, only 8 countries invested more than 1% of their AgGDP in agricultural R&D

21. Africas Investment Challenge:High Donor-Dependency

  • Many countries are extremely dependent on donor funding and development bank loans

22. Africas Investment Challenge:Funding Volatility

  • Donor and government funding has been highly volatile, making viable research programs difficult

Senegal Nigeria Niger Burkina Faso 23. Africas Capacity Challenges

  • Decreasing qualifications: Shares of BSc-qualified staff have increased in some countries since 2000
  • Large influx of young scientists with BSc degrees, who need adequate training opportunities and mentoring
  • High staff turnover: Many researchers left agencies due to low salaries/conditions of service; Many retired more will retire in coming years

24.

  • Introduction to current ASTI program
  • Agricultural R&D investment and capacity trends in Latin America
  • Recent evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Planned expansion and collaboration with CIAT

Outline of Presentation 25. ASTI transformation and expansion 26. Transformation from Ad Hoc Activity to a Sustainable Data Collection System

    • More decentralized data collection system by establishing a set of national and regional focal points
    • This will allow for closer linkages with national stakeholders, and it will link the ASTI team with specialists at regional organizations, other CGIAR centers, and other partner institutions
    • Such a system will promote ownership of the datasets by the national partners, and ultimately stimulate the use of the datasets for further advocacy and analysis, and secure the continuity of data collection activities

27.

  • Regular data collection/analysis coordinated through CIAT office, technical backstopping by ASTI/IFPRI
  • Output: datasets, Report on State of Agricultural R&D in LAC (every two years)
  • Increase relevance of ASTI datasets by increasing in-depth analysis
  • Through collaboration with regional entities (FORAGRO, IICA) and national partners (INIAs, other) increaseuse of data for advocacy and policy formulation

Geographical expansion: Maintaining up-to date datasets and analysis for LAC 28.

  • Thank you

Please visitwww.asti.cgiar.org 29.

  • Analysis to improve ASTIs methodology and data collection procedures.
  • Analysis for R&D managers and policymakers to provide further insight into the underlying trends and issues related to agricultural R&D capacity and investments as well as the structure and functioning of the agricultural R&D systems.
  • Serve as a data source for broader economic questions related to the development and diffusion of technologies.

Expansion: Strengthening analytical capacity 30. ASTI Data in the Context of Agricultural S&T PolicyMonitoring, evaluation & priority setting Data & Statistics Research & Policy Analysis Deliberation, negotiation & policy selection Implementation Source: Adapted from BMGF 2009. 31. AST