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Bryan question 2

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Bryan Osango

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The advanced portfolio was to create a conventional music video which will appeal to an audience from a particular genre. In order to create a conventional music video, I partook in a number different research tasks such as theories , research into different music genres which I then used to knowledge I learned to chose a track of my choice. Prior to the production, I took part in a number of planning tasks such as planning location and star image, as well as planning the digipak and magazine advert which would further promote my artist and his new album.

Research + Planning = Music video/Digipak/Magazine advert.

A music video is essentially a commercial video that is used to promote an artist and their music. A music video can either be performance based, concept based or narrative based. The video acts as a marketing tool to promote the artist or their song to gain popularity. Another purpose a music video can serve is to entertain the audience or as a way for the artist to portray their ideologies and cultural beliefs, whether it is political issues or simply everyday issues that they feel has to be addressed.

The task!

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I believe that my music video follows conventions of real media products, as well as developing them also. My music video follows both a narrative and performance structure at different sections of the music video, and my research shows that this structure of music videos is conventional to the RnB genre that my song comes from. In addition to this, from both my knowledge and audience feedback, I found that my ancillary texts follow great conventions and are common to the ‘RnB’ genre too; a clear example of this is the number of different images I used on ancillary products to show consistency on who my artist is. As a result of this, it is clear that my products demonstrate Andrew Goodwin’s theory of ‘Star motif’. Knowing exactly what audience response I was aiming to receive, I decided that it would be ideal to follow conventions that the audience expect from this specific genre. Doing this allows them to not only buy into my product but also buy into the artist’s lifestyle, ideologies and generally relate to the product further. Here are some examples of the use of conventions that are illustrated within my work:

• High key lighting is used to expose the characters emotions which allows the audience to understand the narrative further.

• Our use of editing matches the pace of the song well.• My music video is visually appealing through the use of

mise en scene. The costume, hair and make up are significant elements which encourages the audience to buy into the artists lifestyle. ‘Star image’ is a main element within music videos (Dyer) which we clearly portray.

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Prior to creating my music video, I researched into male artists of the R’n’B genre and I found that they were represented in a very cool and mainstream fashion which allowed them appeal to the audience of the mainstream culture. Costume played a significant role to this. Two similar artists that influenced my artist’s representation are Will.I.Am and Usher who are from the mainstream RnB and Hip-Hop culture. They are both ‘Stars’ in their own right, therefore I used a similar representation.

I used conventions of real media products as I also wanted to create a visual representation to who they are and the values portrayed within their music. Similar to the representation of Will.I.Am and Usher I represented my artist in the following ways:

Stylish. Youthful. Mainstream fashion. Black on black leather look.

Usher My artist Will.I.Am

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Cinematography acts as an eye for the audience and makes them feel connected to the music video that they are watching. Furthermore, it is also important because it helps portray ‘Star image’ in which the audience will be able to see the star and remember their image.

Andrew Goodwin’s theory ‘characteristics of a music video’ states the belief that close up shots are used to create a relationship between the audience and the artist, making the audience feel more involved with them.

Richard Dyer’s ‘star theory’ supports the idea of the artists representation and persona of artist being influenced and reinforced by key elements of cinematography, for example close up or medium close up shots of the artist.

Laura Mulvey analysed female representation through cinematography, where she expressed cinematography is presented in a voyeuristic manner, for example close up and panning shots emphasising female body parts. We challenged this idea as we felt that it was not necessary to portray our female character in this way due to the narrative and themes of the song.

CU of artist

Medium shot

Challenging Mulvey

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CINEMATOGRAPHY Through my analysis of cinematography within the R’n’B, below are

examples that I utilised within my work to follow, use and develop generic conventions.

My research showed me that close ups are conventional to create emotional responses, whether that be for the artist or the characters. Below are some music videos and their use of cinematography that influenced my idea.

Existing cinematography

• Within my music video, a mid-close up is used as the beginning where we are introduced to the male character syncing the words “The wound heals but it never does”. Doing this allows the audience to see the characters upset facial expressions and gives them an overall expectation of the music video.

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The use of the long shot allows the audience to see the artist’s costume which is very important according to Dyer’s ‘star image’ theory as it encourages the audience to buy into the artist’s lifestyle. As well as this, it allows the audience to see the graffiti filled background which provides them with a further knowledge of the artist and their culture.

Long shot

• My music video also uses a high angle showing my two characters laying in bed. Doing this allows the audience to have a greater understand of what has happened within the narrative as well as feel sympathy towards the characters as they are portrayed as vulnerable. The range of different cinematography used within my media product clearly shows my development of conventions of real media products.High angle

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Mise en scene is a significant aspect within a music video as it allows the audience to understand the music video as well as portraying particular themes. Different genres have their own conventions on how they portray mise en scene which provides the audience with knowledge of what genre the song originates from.

Richard Dyer’s theory of ‘star image’ relates to the use of costume, hair and make up as the theory suggests in order to be a successful artist, you must follow a mainstream culture. Within my music video, I decided to follow Dyer’s theory as it will allow me to target and appeal to a mainstream audience. I did this through the use of costume, positioning of the artist/s, lighting to represent him and body language and facial expression.

LightingLighting from existing music


CostumeCostume from existing

music video

Positioning Positioning from existing music


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expressions was an important element as the themes of the song are about heartbreak and relationships so I wanted to represent this thoroughly through my characters. An example of when this was used is when the female character walks out, leaving her boyfriend heartbroken. As this happens, a long shot is used as the male character crouches on the floor with his heads in his hands.

Image of male character crouching on the floor.

Another example of body language and facial


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ICONOGRAPHY My media product uses further forms and conventions of real media

products through the use of iconography. I used a bottle of alcohol and lighters at the beginning of my music

video where the male character recites the lyrics “the wound heals but it never does”. I decided to use this to help portray and emphasise the heartbreak felt by the character allowing the audience to engage and understand the music video further. The use of the alcohol bottle is very simple yet effective because of its connotations of depression and loneliness.

Within my music video I also used the iconography of a suitcase which is seen when the female character is packing her stuff away and walks out the door leaving the male character feeling unhappy. Using this specific iconography causes the audience to feel further sympathy towards the male character.

Suitcase Comparable product

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My music video uses a number of different locations. A key location which I used was the underground path which had a wall filled in graffiti. This decision was made after my analysing of existing RnB videos.

Another setting of my music video was based around a white background. This decision was made as I thought this would add to the simplicity of the music video and attract the audiences attention to the characters and artist that are shown during a specific scene. The use of this simple background is conventional to the ‘RnB’ genre as these videos also tend to portray a sense of simplicity. Within my music video I aimed to portray the elements of heartache and sadness, which I believed I have clearly achieved. I wanted to use and develop this within my music video production as I believed that this similar location is used within different music videos of the same genre which attempt to connect with the audience that way I was aiming to.

My music video also used the location of a house; bedroom to be specific in which the narrative between the two characters is clearly displayed. My music video features the narrative of two characters that are in a relationship and their relationship begins to deteriorate. I chose to use this location because it is conventional to the R’n’B genre in terms of portraying a relationship between to characters.

Image of existing location

Image of my underground


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LIGHTING AND COLOUR There is a clear use of different lighting techniques such as

high key, low-key lighting and natural lighting. The conventional use of high key lighting is used when my

male character is in the bathroom staring at the mirror to portray his innocence.

In my music video there is a use of a subtle peach/orange colour which is used in the narrative of when the two characters begin to get intimate. We decided to use this colour as it creates and portrays the romantic atmosphere we were intending to create.

Low key lighting was also used when my two artists are performing as it helps portray the theme of heartbreak within my music video.

The idea here was to use and develop the idea of specific lighting and colour that is conventional to the R’n’B genre which enables the music video to connect with the audience, which is a aim that I was pursuing.

Existing music video

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Throughout my music video, there is a clear range of different positioning used for the artists as well as the characters. For example, when my artists are performing, they are seen to be in the centre of the shot, making him the main focus, allowing a better understanding to develop for the audience.

In terms of the artist being the centre of the shot, Goodwin said that doing so allows a good relationship between the audience and the artist, whereas Dyer say’s that it is used to create a star persona.

Artist in the centre of the shot

Existing music video

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POSITIONING Another example of positioning that is used within my music video is when

my artist is performing and is positioned on the right of the camera in the foreground and my second artist is seen in the background on the left side of the shot. I decided to use this shot as it allows me to not only have my two artists in one shot, but also portray both star motif as well as star image in a single shot. By doing this I ensured that the artist was focused on to ensure I was following and developing real media product conventions.

Existing music video position

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Costume in a music video can be classed as a promotional tool, for example if the artist is seen wearing a specific clothing brand, the audience will be influenced by this and want to purchase their own. Dyer’s star theory also states that the artist can be an inspiration for the consumer, making them buy into their lifestyles.

As a group we decided that our artists should be dressed in a very fashionable costume which will be seen attractive by the audience. Our main artist is seen wearing a black baseball jacket, black slim jeans and also a black paisley bandana with white prints.

Our second artist is seen wearing a black cap, quilted jumper and black jeans also. Doing so allowed us to create a sleek, eye catching look for our artist’s.

Existing artist’s

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COSTUME, HAIR & MAKE UP We challenged Mulvey’s ‘male gaze’ by not portraying the female character

in a sexual way as it was not appropriate to do so. Our female character was dressed in a simple costume; blue jeans and a burgundy jumper. The male character was seen wearing dark blue jeans and a navy jumper. We decided to dress our characters in a casual way as we wanted to portray them in a realistic way that the audience could relate to relate to and sympathise with.

After the two characters split, there is a close up of my female showing mascara running down her face as a result of the tears. This is conventional to the R’n’B genre as it further portrays the significance of what has happened which causes further audience sympathy.

• Having the male at times being topless connoted the feeling of being stripped and upset by the relationship. This was to also portray innocence and is something we found happened in RnB music videos at times.

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According to Goodwin’s ‘characteristics of a music video’, he believes that the editing should match the pace or beat of the song.

Generally, RnB videos are face paced, however, this song was slower paced so we used slow paced editing to match the simplistic beat of the song and this allows the audience to understand the meaningful lyrics and visuals.

When the characters get intimate, slow paced editing is used which creates a romantic atmosphere for the audience to witness and understand the narrative further.

At the start of the video, we see a series of jump cuts which changes with each beat. This is to introduce all the characters to the audience.

Existing music video

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FOLLOWING CONVENTIONS: SOUND The song and the sounds of the song are slow and has an

emotional and meaningful purpose. The lyrics highlight the problems within a relationship.

To represent the sounds and lyrics of the song, we created a breaking up narrative with performance from the artists/.

Goodwin’s stated the following: ‘Sound should match the visuals’ ‘Lyrics should match the visuals’ ‘Editing should match the sound’

Our video uses all of the stated above by Goodwin, therefore making my product a video that uses and develops conventions of real media products.