Wireless sensor networks routing protocols

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<ul><li> 1. ENERGY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOLS GUIDE Dr. Aloknath De Ashish Joshi Vipin Kumar Garg</li></ul> <p> 2. Routing protocol classification: Data Centric : helps in removing the redundanttransmissions Hierarchical : clustering of nodes Location Based: use location based information to relay thedate to a node rather than the whole network Network flow &amp; QoS awareness 3. Classical approaches: Flooding &amp; Gossiping Flooding: A node simply sends the copy of data to all its neighbors ,except from the one it has just received the data. Gossiping: Forward data to one randomly selected node to conserve energy. Distribute information slowly Dissipate energy at a slower rate. 4. Deficiencies of classical routing: 1. Implosion2.Overlap3.Resource Blindness 5. SPIN(Sensor Protocol Information via Negotiation )Key innovations: Negotiations : metadata Resource adaptationMetadata: Completely describes collected data Application specificSPIN Messages: ADV : meta-data REQ: meta-data DATA: Actual data + meta-data 6. SPIN-PPADVREQDATA 7. Directed DiffusionDirected Diffusion is defined by four elements Interest : it is a query which specifies what user wants. Data Message : It is collected or processed information of aphysical phenomena. Gradient : It is direction state in each node that receive aninterest Reinforcement :This defines the one or small no. of pathsfrom multiple gradient paths from source to originator ofinterest. 8. NamingPattern of a interest Type = wheeled vehicle Interval = 20ms Duration = 10s Rect = [-100,100,200,400]Pattern of a data message Type = wheeled vehicle Location = [125,250] Intensity = 0.6 Timestamp = 01:20:40 9. Directed diffusionSource BSBSSource (a) Propagate interest (b) Set up gradients BSSource(c) Send data and path reinforcemennt 10. Interest and Gradient An interest is usually injected into the network at somenode(sink) in the network.Interest propagation : Every node maintain an interest cache, each item in cachecorresponds to a distinct interest. When a node receives an interest it checks it in the cache.Gradient Establishment: Every pair of neighboring nodes establish a gradient towardseach other. A gradient specifies both data rate and direction in which tosend events. 11. Data Propagation When a sensor node detects a target searches its cache formatching interest entry. It computes the highest requested event rate among all itsoutgoing gradient. When a node receive a data message, it also search in cacheto find matching interest entry. If no entry matched or has it has sent it to others already thandata message silently dropped. 12. ReinforcementPath establishment using positive reinforcement : to reinforcethe neighbor, the sink resend original interest message withhigher data rate.Local repair for failed paths : A intermediate node also canapply reinforcement rules.Path truncation using negative reinforcement : it is possible thatmore than one path reinforced, if one path is consistentlybetter, we have a mechanism to negative reinforce the secondpath. 13. Wirelesssensornetworksimulatorv1.1 14. REFRENCES Akaya K. ,Younis M. , A Survey on Routing Protocols forWireless Sensor Networks , Elsevier Ad Hoc NetworkJournal, Vol. 3 (2005) Kulik, Heinzelman , Balakrishnan,MIT Negotiation basedprotocols for disseminating information in wireless sensornetworks Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan, DirectedDiffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking, IEEE transactionon networking,Vol.11,No.1,Feb.2003 15. Thank you</p>

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