Urban Self-Sufficiency with Sustainable Energy & Clean Mobility
Gustav R. Grob. F.IP (F.EI)International Sustainable Energy Organization ISEOChairman ISO/TC203/WG3 Energy Systems Analysis
President International Clean Energy Consortium ICEC
The complexity of the future global sustainable energy system intelligently interlinking a multitude of decentralized clean energy sources with efficient
stationary users and electric vehicles with millions of buffer batteries
Energy supply for a growing population is facing fundamental change for three reasons:
1 - The economic supply of the mineral energy resources oil and gas is ending in a few decades.
2 - Health hazards, risks and global warming causedby emissions from combustion engines.
3 - Imperative conservation of the fossil resourcesfor the chemical and metallurgical industries.
-1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
SOLAR PV & THERMAL ENERGY DIRECT WIND POWERHYDRO POWER / TIDAL / WAVE POWEROCEAN & GEOTHERMAL ENERGYBIOMASS / BIOGAS ENERGYAMBIENT ENERGYMUSCLE POWER
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SUPPLY
INEVITABLE CLIMAX OFMINERAL ENERGY
HAZARDOUS ANDDEPLETING ENERGY
CONSUMPTION(FOSSIL & FISSILE)
ENERGY HISTORY & FORECAST
RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION
TOTAL USABLEENERGY ON EARTH
DEPLETION OF FINITE ENERGY RESOURCES
OPTION 0 (ZERO-SUBSTITUTION)
SOURCE : ISEO
TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Prevention of catastrophic global warming by clean
Global Warming Forecasts by prominent scientists of Meteorological Institutes
To cope with these serious problems, benign,
renewable energy systems must be multiplied
to replace conventional combustion
Smart grid electricity is the ultimate concept
WORLD ENERGY SCENARIO 2000 - 2050
0 . 0
5 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 5 0 . 0
2 0 0 . 0
2 5 0 . 0
3 0 0 . 0
2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
So u r c e f o r F i n i t e E n e r g y D a t a : A SP O a t w w w . p e a k o i l . n e t & K y o t o P r o t o c o l
WORLD E NE RGY DE M AND 2% ANNUAL GROWT H
RE NE WABLE E NE RGY DE M AND GROWT H AV . 5. 2 %
FI NI T E E NE RGY DE CLI NE
Energy Option Immediately Feasible Theoretical Potential- Bio energy 50 PWh/year 80- Hydropower 8 15- Geothermal Electricity Conventional 2 - Geothermal Electricity Hot Dry Rock 80
- Geothermal Heat 4 - Wind Power 53 160- Solar Power PV 6 - Solar Thermal Power 40
- Solar Active Heat 20 - Solar Passive Heat 10 - Ocean Energy 15 200- Heat Pumps 10 50- Muscle Energy 1 10- Novel Energy Technologies (R&D) 50 200Total Renewable Energy Potential 348 PWh/year max. 1550 PWh/yearmore than twice present world energy consumption
Geothermal EnergyBorehole systems
a) Hydraulic fracturing by high pressure Brunnschweiler system with safely controlledwith relatively small energy yields closed primary water cycle in insulated well
or andb) Boreholes to geothermal aquifers secondary steam turbine cycle with co-generation
in open systems with limited energy for district heating, AC, greenhouses, industry
Advantages:No yields by hazard ! Super performance (GW).No fuels or waste problems.Excavated materials re-used.Base load power plus heat
Energy cost: 24 $/kWh
a) Water is finding way of lowest resistance= limited Energy yield
b) Only in hydro geologic strata often far from consumers.Often high energy transport cost.Often limited to heat production only.
Energy cost: 5-10 $/kWh
Advantages of geothermal deep well energy co-generation
Produces electricity and heat (suitable also for AC) Much lower net cost than any other energy source Can be built near agglomerations and substations Less energy transmission line cost hence also
less transmission losses than other power plants Invisible, no air or water pollution and no noise Ideal power source for clean electric vehicles No radiation risks or other health hazards Creates new clean sustainable jobs No waste disposal problems ! Lasts forever !
Typical locationsExample NRW Subsitution of Nuclear & Coal
Finite Nuclear Power (to be replaced)
Sucess Story: Barcelona Solar Ordinance
One of the first cities to oblige owners to equip roofs with solar collectors ! To heat all the domestic sanitary water by solar energy it is necessary to cover
1.62 % of municipal surface or 2.82 % of built surface, representing1.07 m2/capita > 2.4 m2/appartment > 20.15 m2/residential building
Evolution of solar collector surface since ordinance enforcement:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Conclusions of the ISEO Energy Study1. There is more affordable renewable energy available on Earth than
humankind ever needs at the foreseeable population growth rate.
2. Most renewable energy systems like GEOCOGEN are competitive with the depleting non-renewable sources - even more so, if the full costing polluters-pay principle and smart grids are applied.
3. All nations and cities are able to become energy self-sufficient with renewables and thus can drastically reduce pollution by cleaner, more efficient power plants and transport modes.
4. The remaining finite mineral energy resources can and must be conserved for higher added value purposes in the chemical and metallurgical industries.
Transportation absorbs over 1/3 of World Energy Production
i.e. over 50 % of World Oil Production
European Shares of Energy for Transportation
The bulk of energy is usedfor inefficient road transportationtoo many trucks and underutilzedcars with low-efficiency engines
OF THE FUTURE
Clean Rapid Mass Transit and inter-modal freight systems are indispensable for the efficient flow of people and goods in highly populated regions, but also clean and safe individual transport is required to satisfy the needs of humans living or working in remote, scattered locations and for their leisure time.
Solutions are electric trains for goods and people, clean fuel trucks and ships for inter- modal transportation, cleaner aero-planes and efficient 2, 3 & 4-wheelers driven by clean fuels or electricity from RE sources.
Rapid Mass Transit Systems
vv People Transportation vvmust evolve towards combined Road-Rail
Mass Transit Systems. Excellent example:the saving
unproductive time of travellers, traffic fines, parking and fuel cost, pollution, reducing
traffic congestion and improving social life among the passengers in transit
Electric Swiss Rail Network
Example: Electric Schoolbus with Supercaps
Individual Transportis, however, one of the basic human urges.
It must be satisfied for professional and leisure purposes. I characterized the car of
the future 1992 in Rio as follows:
Comfortable, Light, Zero-Pollution,Quite, Safe, Long-Life, Recyclable,
Low Maintenance Cost& Modern Navigation System
Solar CarEV Concept
Comparison of 15 kWh Batteries by Weight
Future Electric Cars - Long Range & Long Life
COMPARISON OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN COST (40 kW; 240000 km over 6 years) Drive Options Battery Hydrogen Hydrogen * Gasoline Remarks Criteria NOVEL Fuel Cell Combustion Combust. * a standard 4-cylinder combustion engine is used ** gasoline version: 1$/Liter, 10 Liters per 100 km Li-ion or Amb. Temp. Cryogenic Gasoline *** AC/DC charger on board the electric car for easier battery charging ZEBRA Storage Storage ** Tank **** cryogenic H2 storage boil off loss depending on parking duration Relative Drive the same gear box assumed for all options Investment $/W 0,75 2,35 1,35 < 0.20 including energy management, storage and power train Energy Cost $/km 0,03 0,07 0,16 0,15 > energy supply at 0,1 $/kWh or H2 at 1 $ per Litre gasoline equivalent Relative Weight kg 350 250 250 200 > average weight of energy management, storage and power train Average Range km 300 400 200 400 > with one tank filling or one full charge (plus extra charges at stops) Energy Efficiency % 0,75 0,32 0,13 0,13 > total efficiency over whole energy chain to gear box E + Cap. Cost $/km < 0,20 0,56 0,46 0,28 > at 6 % interest over 3 years and 240000 km usage incl. service & spares (Total Vehicle Cost) E-Vehicle maintenance cost are the lowest BATTERY