Sustainability

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Text of Sustainability

  • 1. 6S U S TA I N A B I L I T YS U S TA I N A B I L I T Y NOV 2009119

2. 6 . 1 S U S TA I N A B L E D E S I G N P R O C E S S A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N SThe sustainable master plan lays a path to an envisioned future for the campus where resources are used wisely, with minimized waste and reduced operating costs, while creating a healthy and inspiring environment that contributes to the environmental health of the site and its surrounding region. In addition, a good environmental design will contribute to better security campus wide. CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) utilizes its surroundings inclusive of natural and constructed elements such as raised turf and lighting. This will create an interaction between human behavior and the built environment which lead to reduction in fear and incidence of crime towards improved quality of life. The foundation for this design process is to carry out research into the ecology of the site, the climate, the culture, the community of people served by the campus, and a survey of existing facilities. With that understanding, we consider questions about how to meet the future plans for development on the campus in a way that is in balance with nature and user patterns, and that is economically feasible over the long term of the campus. NUHS and NUS plans to expand its campus with facilities that are more energy-intensive in nature, such as wet laboratories and acute patient care, which present a challenge to the university as it seeks to reduce its energy consumption and operating expense overall. This plan seeks solutions which will reduce the energy consumption of current facilities and minimize energy consumption to the greatest degree feasible for new construction. The integrated design process is comprised of a series of inquiries in a logical progression towards a design solution: Information Gathering, Prioritization, and Definition of Standards for campus development. For each primary area of environmental impact outlined below, those steps were taken, resulting in the following recommendations listed in the following pages: As part of the environmental design, CFD study is recommended for exhaust, safety and natural ventilation. 120S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y NOV 2009The university will be designed to eliminate waste of resources through the capture and reuse of waste flows of energy, water, and materials. This system benefits from the diverse uses of the university campus finding synergies between varying building types. 3. 6 . 2 S U S TA I N A B L E D E S I G N C O M P O N E N T S 6.2.1 ENERGY EFFICIENCYFuture development and retrofits are to use the following standards to improve conservation of energy:efficiency shall target an improvement of at least 10% above regulatory baseline efficiency requirements.ETTV stands for Envelope Thermal Transfer Value of the building, as determined in accordance with the formula set out in BCAs Code on Envelope Thermal Performance for Buildings and it is applicable to airconditioned building spaces with aggregate areas > 500 m2. ETTV should be targeted in the range of at least 44 W/m2. The baseline standard based as specified in the Code on Envelope Thermal Performance for Buildings issued by BCA is 50W/m2. The salient parameters such as material properties for the faade or external wall system, shading provision and louvre glazing shall be selected accordingly to meet this requirement.For air-conditioned distribution area, CO2 sensors or similar automatic control devices to be installed to regulate outdoor air flow rate to maintain the concentration of CO2 to the level of less than 1000ppm.Air distribution system (Air Handling Units (AHUs) & Fan Coil Units (FCUs)) shall comply with Clause 7.11.5 in SS CP13. The design for the air distribution systemMechanically ventilated carparks shall be adequately incorporated with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors to regulate the amount of mechanical ventilation (MV) where applicable for carparks. It is encouraged to consider fully naturally ventilated design or otherwise incorporating fume extract system or combination of different ventilation modes to reduce MV. Ventilation shall be adequately provided in all building for its intended occupancy. (a) Where natural ventilation is applicable, it shall be provided by means of openable windows or other openings with anaggregate area of not less than (i) 5% of the floor area of the room or space required to be ventilated; and (ii) 15% of the floor area of the aboveground car parking area required to be ventilated. (b)Where mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning systems are used, the ventilation rates of these systems shall comply with SS CP 13 Code of Practice for Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning in Buildings.Buildings shall not exceed 50W/m2. In respect of roofs without skylight, the average thermal transmittance (U-value) for the gross area of the roof shall not exceed the limit prescribed in the following Tables for the corresponding weight group:To encourage the use of energy efficient design and control of ventilation systems in common areas i.e. toilets, staircases, corridors, lift lobbies, atriums etc, natural ventilation systems shall be used wherever applicable. If natural ventilation is not applicable, MV system shall be used. In respect of roofs with skylight, the roof thermal transfer value (RTTV) as determined in accordance with the formula set out in the Code on Envelope Thermal Performance forNote: This requirement does not apply to building with an aggregate floor area not exceeding 500 m2, open sided sheds, covered walkways and linkways, store rooms and utility rooms or plants and equipment rooms. Maximum Thermal Transmittance for Roof of Air-Conditional Building (Reference: Code for Environmental Sustainability of Buildings Version 1.0)Maximum Thermal Transmittance for Roof of Non- Air-Conditional Buildingng (Reference: Code for Environmental Sustainability of Buildings Version 1.0) S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y NOV 2009121 4. 6.2.1 ENERGY EFFICIENCYAir Tightness and Leakage: (a) All windows on the building envelope shall not exceed the air leakage rates specified in SS 212 Specification for Aluminum Alloy Windows. (b) Where the door opening is located along the perimeter of the building envelope or leading to an exterior open space, external corridor, passageway or pedestrian walkway, that unit shall (i) be completely separated from the other parts of the building; and (ii) has its air-conditioning system separated from and independent of the central system. To ensure good thermal comfort, it is required to design air-conditioning systems which would provide consistent indoor conditions for thermal comfort as stated below: Indoor temperature between 22.5 to 25.5 C Relative Humidity < 70% The occupied space shall be designed with ambient sound levels to the recommendation stated in CP 13 and shall include detailed analysis, calculations and/or measurements to ensure that the designed ambient sound levels are met. Energy of lighting consumption shall be minimized with properly designed lighting level; (a) Lighting control for artificial lighting shall be provided in accordance with SS 530.122S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y NOV 2009(b) The design for the lighting system shall target the improvement of at least 20% above the baseline. (Baseline = Maximum lighting power budget stated in SS 530,Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency Standard for Building Services and Equipment) (c) Building lighting is to be maintained at luminance level as stated in CP 38 Code of Practice for Artificial Lighting in Buildings for various types of occupancy and in SS 531: Part 1 : 2006 Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places where appropriate. Electrical sub-meters shall be provided for all key building services and energy usage of end users or tenants for energy consumption monitoring. All electrical sub-meters shall be linked to the Building Management System (BMS) for energy consumption monitoring. All lifts shall be incorporated with energy efficient features such as AC Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) motor drive or equivalent OR/AND with sleep mode features or equivalent. All escalators shall be incorporated with energy efficient features such as motion sensors. Coverage of high frequency ballasts in the fluorescent luminaries shall be at least 90% of the applicable areas that are served by fluorescent luminaires.Building shall be sited to preserve views, allow day lighting, shade common spaces, allow cross-ventilation, eliminate cross-contamination, and minimize site disturbances. Passive design criteria for thermal comfort and health where building is configured to reduce glare and solar heat gain, induces clearly defined process and metrics for effective natural ventilation Optimize massing within 20 degrees of an East-West elongation to reduce solar heat gain. Envelope design guidelines external shading approaches, glazing performance parameters, insulation performance parameters. Design buildings to reduce or eliminate westfacing glazing. Design shading to reduce heat gain and maximize daylight with the sun directly overhead. Recommend treatments that are most effective at east and west facades. Optimize glazing selection for daylight penetration, balanced with reduced heat gain. Utilize bulk flow analysis to create a standard for window opening and stack dimensions to allow for more effective and healthy natural ventilation to laboratory and patient care areas. Utilize daylight sensors throughout toeliminate unnecessary daytime use of electric light in non-patient care areas. Provide for efficacious lighting design parameters such as controls, daylight integration, proper fixture spacing, proper wall and ceiling brightness. Utilize zoning to create zones where passive strategies can be used without compromising lab or patient safety. Provide systems p