Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)

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Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)By Tilak Dias School of MaterialsThe University of Manchester, UK

Text of Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)

  • 1. Smart Textiles Adding Value to Sri Lankan TextilesThe Electronic Textiles OptionDr Tilak Dias School of Materials The University of Manchester, UK

2. Tilak Dias Introduction All current commodity textiles are passive; i.e. not capable of adapting to environmental changes Current technical textiles are engineered to perform within a defined set of parameters; may have the ability to adapt to changes within very narrow bandwidth of environmental changes 3. Tilak DiasIntroductionNext generation of textiles will be active and intelligent; i.e. they would be able to adapt to changes in the environmentQuestion What are they ? 4. Tilak Dias SMART & Intelligent Knitted StructuresCore Elements Knitted transducers Intelligent signal processing Knitted actuators 5. Tilak Dias Background 6. Tilak Dias BackgroundResearch team: Anura Fernando Edward Lay Kim Mitcham Ravindra Monaragala Ravindra Wijesiriwardana William Hurley 7. Tilak Dias Research in Electro-textiles Heat generating knitted structures Knitted transducers and sensors Light emitting fabrics Electronically active yarns 8. Tilak Dias Electrically Active Knitted StructuresConcept of creating textiles with significant electrical properties: Incorporate conductive elements into the structure knitted structureElectro Conductive Area (ECA) 9. Tilak Dias Science and Technology BaseAdvantage of using knitted structures 10. Tilak DiasCreation of ECAUse of electro-conductive fibres/yarns Metal yarns (mono-filamentand multi-filament) Metal deposition yarns Carbon fibres and yarns Conducting polymeric yarns Stainless steel yarn 11. Tilak DiasCreation of ECAUse of electro-conductive fibres/yarns Metal yarns (mono-filamentand multi-filament) Metal deposition yarns Carbon fibres and yarns Conducting polymeric yarns PA yarn vacuum coated with Agnano layer 12. Tilak DiasCreation of ECAUse of electro-conductive fibres/yarns Metal yarns (mono-filamentand multi-filament) Metal deposition yarns Carbon fibres and yarns Conducting polymeric yarns Silicone monofilament yarn loaded withCarbon (0.5mm diameter); FabRoc 13. Tilak Dias Scan2Knit TechnologyComputerised flat-bed knitting technology to create three dimensionally shaped seamless stockingsStoll CMS 330.6, E18 14. Tilak Dias Advantages of using modern computerised flat- bed knitting technology to create medical textiles Precision positioning of fibers in 3D space Ability to create seamless 3D structures Multilayer structures True seamless garment knitting techniques Scan2Knit technology 15. Tilak Dias Example of a knitted sensor Conductive pathway 1 Base structure ECA Conductive pathway 2 16. Tilak Dias ModellingRHRL RLRH Unit Cell - Stitch Electrical Equivalent Circuit 17. Tilak Dias ModellingCalculation of RH and RL Lleg Lhead RL RH A A RL Resistance of the stitch leg RHResistance of the stitch head Lleg Yarn length in the stitch legLhead Yarn length in the stitch head A Yarn cross sectional area A Yarn cross sectional area Resistivity of yarnResistivity of yarn 18. Tilak DiasEquivalent resistive mesh circuit of the ECA Modelling 22 Equivalent Resistance (Req) 2018161412 10 201020 1510 05 0 Relationship between equivalent resistance and stitch density of the ECADimensions of the ECA:m courses x n wales Assumption: Lleg = 2 Lhead 19. Tilak Dias Theoretical Prediction of Current Distribution Current Distribution in Stitch Heads Temperature Distribution in Stitch Heads Current Distribution in Stitch Legs Temperature Distribution in Stitch Legs 20. Tilak DiasHeating GloveConductive pathwaysThermoKnit heaterelements (ECA)Power Vs Temperature (Room temp: 25C ) Voltage Vs Average Steady State Temperature (Room temp: 25C) 21. Tilak Dias Knitted Switch Technology K-Switch Motivation: Development of Next Generation of Textiles for the Automotive IndustryIndustry Requirement: Textile based switches and sensors with electro conductivepathways Heating textiles Light emitting textiles (headliners) 22. Tilak Dias Knitted structure with 4 dual ECAs (K-Switches) ECA2ECA1Knitted structure20mm Constructional information: Principle of operation:The minimum gap between the ECAs: Measurement of DC resistance between Yarn filament diameter; the two ECAs Stitch length 23. Tilak DiasK-Switch TechnologyDC Resistance variationOperation of the K-SwitchPrinciple of operation: Measurement of the DC resistance between the two ECAsDetermined with a precision digital multimeterunder two wire resistance measurementconfiguration at 0.1s sample rate 24. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology DC Resistance variation with time Observation: less than 300s settling time 25. Tilak DiasApplications K-Switch Technology 26. Tilak DiasK-Switch Technology Analysis Advantages: Easy and reliable manufacture Higher degree of design capability (3 yarn jacquard knitting) Cost effective manufacture Higher durability and life time Straightforward integration of K-Switches for different applicationsLimitations: Simple electronics Switch characteristics depends on skin resistance Ineffective to other materials 27. Tilak DiasK-Switch TechnologyModelling of Impedance between the ECAsCole-Cole model equivalent circuit of theECA - Skin - ECA Impedance 28. Tilak DiasInfluence of the measurement frequency on theimpedance - open circuit of the ECAs Open circuit impedance is 0.1954 M at frequencies greater than 2 MHz Impedance in M K-Switch Technology Frequency in MHz 29. Tilak DiasImpedance characteristics of K-SwitchClosed circuit of the ECAs K-Switch Technology 30. Tilak Dias Impedance characteristics of K-SwitchClosed circuit of the ECAs K-Switch Technology 31. Tilak DiasElectro-Luminescent Fibre StructuresTheoretical background: Exposure of an electroluminescent substance to a high frequency electrical field radiate lightThe state-of-the-art EL polymer sheets Screen printing micro-encapsulated phosphors (Osram) on to plastic sheets EL layer (m)Conductive transparent layer (m) 2 dielectric layers (m)Silver layer (m)Plastic sheet (base) 32. Tilak Dias EL Yarn Technology Motivation:Develop EL Yarns which could be integrated into textile structures Concept 1. Electro-conductive yarn 2. Dielectric layer 3. EL layer 4. Transparent protectivelayer 5. Conductive wire 33. Tilak DiasExperimental Rig 34. Tilak Dias Not activated Activated low frequencyKnitted EL Samples Activated high frequency 35. Tilak Dias Application of EL Fibres Light Emitting Textiles Transport sector, passenger cabin design of vehicles; e.g. headliners, carpets, upholstery Advertising industry; e.g. flexible and drapable billboards and notice boards Buildings; e.g. ceilings, walls, carpets Household products; e.g. curtains, furniture fabrics, wall hangings, lamp shades, decorative products Safety and security products Light Emitting Braids and Ropes Safety and security products Decorative and fashion products 36. Tilak Dias Garment System for vital sign monitoringBackgroundSuggestion from School of Medicine, University of ManchesterInitiation of partnership between Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering (ISBE), Medical School; Digital Signal Processing Group (DSPG), School of Electrical & Electronics, and Department of Textiles (UMIST) in 2002Initial funding from The Department of Trade and Industry, UKSetting-up research team for Science & Technology development 37. Tilak Dias Research Achievements Creation of Science base for knitted transducers Knitted dry electrodes Knitted strain gauges Knitted inductive sensors Knitted conductive pathways Development of technology for producing a garment with integrally knitted sensors and conductive pathways Development of vest with 2 lead ECG (proof of concept) 38. Tilak Dias Commercialisation of Technology IPR protected by UMIP 1 core patent IPR assigned to a group of entrepreneurs Formation of a joint venture company by UMIP SmartLife Technology Ltd Raised funds by SmartLife for development of core technology in the University (SoM, ISBE, DSPG) Development of Health Vest with 3 leads ECG, Respiratory and Skin Temperature monitoring Development of hardware and signal processing software 39. Tilak DiasSmartLife Health Vest20042004 2007 40. Tilak Dias Signal comparison Signal from standard Ag/AgCl Gel electrodes Signal from SmartLife electrodesAmplitude (mV) Duration (ms)SignalSection Ag/AgClVest Ag/AgClVestP wave 0.20.3120120QRS complex2.02.58080T wave 0.50.5240240 41. Tilak Dias Target Markets 1. Health, Wellbeing & HomecareMarket size e.g. cardiovascular: ECG US$8bn1 Predictive monitoring Clinical monitoring of patients in their own homes2. SportsEstimated market size US$2bn Professional Personal monitoring Training, lifestyle, personal3. Hazardous Environment first responders, militaryEstimated market size US$2bn[1] Global Market For Patient Monitoring devices US$11.4bn (Frost & Sullivan 2005) 42. Tilak DiasCurrent Research Sensor sock for drop foot detectionHigh frequency textileantenna 43. Tilak Dias Future Electronically functional yarns Fibres and yarns with sensors, transducers and activators 44. Tilak DiasApparel Manufacturing Process Interface Key process steps Integration of electronic devices with apparels Active and sensory micro-devicesGARMENTFibres/Yarn FabricGarmentManufacture Manufacture2nd Generation Manufacture3rd Generation1st Generation1st Generation 45. Tilak Dias Electronically active and sensor fibres Technology is based on the encapsulated area not exceeding 110% of the thread thickness 46. Tilak Dias Vision The development of novel technology for fabricating electronically active and sensor fibres which will be the basic building blocks of the next generation SMART fibrous materials 47. Tilak DiasMicro-device Encapsulation Technology Involves encapsulating devices with a f