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Smart textile

Text of Smart textile

  • 1. Presented by: SHANTI KUMARI TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT B. Tech (3rd yr. , 6th Semester) Roll No. : 08110014016

2. Introduction Smart textiles introduces a shift from passive functionality to active behaviour. It is the result of the integration of microelectronics in textiles to endow materials with new properties. The production of smart textiles is now a reality after a successful marriage of traditional textiles and clothing technology with other branches of science like material science, structural mechanics, sensor and actuator technology, advance processing technology, communication, artificial intelligence, biology etc. 3. Smart textiles are defined as textiles that can sense and react via an active control mechanism to environmental conditions or stimuli from mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical or magnetic sources. 4. Passive Smart Textile Can only sense the environment These are sensors Active Smart Textile Can sense and react to the environmental stimuli These are sensors and actuators Ultra Smart Textile Can sense, react and adapt themselves to environment Cognition, reasoning and activating capacities 5. Functions of smart textiles Sensing Data processing Actuation Storage Communication 6. Sensing Basically , sensing is the function of transforming a signal into another signal that can be read and understood by a predefined reader which can be a real device or a person. For real devices all the signals should be ultimately converted into electrical ones. Thermocouple, quantum tunneling composite( based on softswitch technology), fibre bragg grating sensors( basically optical fibres) are used to convert the signals into electrical ones. 7. Data processing Data processing is one of the components that are required only when active processing is necessary Problems need to be overcome before imparting textile material for this function are : fastness to washing, deformation, interconnections, etc. So far, pieces of electronics are used for data processing which are now available in miniaturised and even in a flexible form. 8. Actuation Actuators respond to an impulse resulting from sensor function , possibly data processing. Actuators make things move , release substances, make noise and many more. Shape memory material, drug supply system(emitting substances) are the best suiting examples in this field. 9. Storage Sensing, data processing, actuation, communication, they usually need energy, mostly electrical energy. For efficient energy management there should be an appropriate combination of energy supply and energy storage capacity. Here sources of energy are-- instance body heat, mechanical motion (elastic from deformation of the fabrics, kinetic from body motion), radiation, etc. Phase change materials or PCM acts as energy storage. 10. Communication It may be required Within one element of a suit---optical fibres, conductive yarns Between the individual elements within the suit--- optical fibres, conductive yarns From the wearer to the suit to pass instructions--- optical fibres From the suit to the wearer or his environment to pass information---wireless connection i.e. antenna manufactured in textile material 11. Thermo regulating material Chromic materials Luminescent materials Conductive material Voltaic materials Electronic textiles Etc 12. PCMs are applied either in spinning or during chemical finishing of textiles like coating, lamination etc. Paraffin phase change material Acts as a storage of heat in garments. Provide a thermal balance between the heat generated by the body while engaging in a sport and the heat released into the environment. 13. Change their colour reversibly according to external environmental conditions Photochromic: external stimulus is light. Thermochromic: external stimulus is heat. Electrochromic: external stimulus is electricity. Piezorochromic: external stimulus is pressure. Solvatechromic: external stimulus is liquid or gas. 14. Emits lights according to external environmental conditions Photoluminescence: external stimulus is light Electroluminescence: external stimulus is electricity Chemioluminescence: external stimulus is a chemical reaction Triboluminescence: external stimulus is friction 15. Function: It conducts electricity. Properties: Light weight, flexible, cost competitive with ability to be crimped, soldered and subjected to textile processing. Preparation: It can be made by filling synthetic fibres with carbon or metal particles, coating fibres with conductive polymers or using conductive short fibres. 16. Storage of energy for electronic parts Use of solar cells Photovoltaic materials possess the property to generate electric current by means of a light excitation. Research underway to produce and store electricity from body movements and wrist rotation 17. These are materials with electronic functionality and at the same time textile characteristics. Advantages: Light weight, durable, washable, integratable with human body. Examples--- Smart shirt The sensory Baby Vest The respibelt The wearable computer 18. Areas of R & D For sensors - actuators: photo-sensitive material chemical responsive materials micro- and nano-materials For signal transmission, processing and control: neural networks and control systems cognition theory and systems For integrated processes and products: tissue engineering chemical/drug releasing 19. Textiles are changing day by day and this hybridisation of textiles with other branches of science has been most welcome by all. It has shifted the consumer value --- instead of wanting the finest natural material, people look at the engineered beauty, innovative design and intelligent aspect of product. So, if smart textile are affordable I think they will be accepted by the user as part of his everyday life 20. I d welcome any questions and remarks.....

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