INTERNSHIP REPORT ON SMART GRID
Author:Kamaldeep SinghAravind Avvar
Supervisor:Prof. Matti Latva-ahoProf. Premanandana Rajatheva
Report on Smart Grids Report on Smart Grid VisionReport on Smart Grid's VisionReport on Smart Grid's Vision
In this report we analyze the background work required to cognize onSmart Grid technology and how it can be effectively implemented. The mainobjective of this report is to consider about the channel models, differentways of measurement, standards and tools used to optimize and allocatethe resources Smart Grid. Firstly we report briefly the definition of SmartGrid and how data is communicated in Smart Grids.Secondly we study onthe different ways of measuring and optimizing the allocation of resources.Finally we study about the present standards and how well are they imple-mented in the real system. At last we conclude with the present scenario inSmart Grids and how we can improve on the present implications.
Key words: Power Line Communications, Smart Grid Technology, Stan-dards, Research Areas in Smart Grids.
1 INTRODUCTION 61.1 What is Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2 Data Communication on Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 CHANNEL MODELS IN SMART GRID 112.1 Channels used in Smart Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.2 FSK System for Smart Utility Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.1 Communication Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . 132.2.2 Power Line Intelligent Metering Evolution . . . . . . . 14
3 POWER FLOW MANAGEMENT IN SMART GRID 163.1 CDMA Channel Model in Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2 Smart wires (SW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4 TOOLS USED IN SMART GRID 204.1 Simulations Tools used in Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5 OPTIMIZATION IN SMART GRID 245.1 Optimization Models for Energy Reallocation in a Smart Grid 24
6 RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN SMART GRID 266.1 Cost Aware Grid Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266.2 Game Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7 STANDARDS USED IN SMART GRID 297.1 IEEE P2030 Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7.1.1 IEEE P1901- Broadband over the power line Networks 317.1.2 Next Generation Service Overlay Network IEEE P1903 32
8 SMART GRID DEVELOPMENT VISION 34
9 CONCLUSION 36
10 REFERENCES 37
This Internship report is based on the practical training which we performedin the department of CWC at the University of Oulu. The purpose of thisInternship is to do the literature review on Smart Grids and to understandits functionality.
Oulu, 15th June 2011
Kamaldeep SinghAravind Avvar
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
FSK Frequency Shift KeyingCDMA Code Division Multiple AccessIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersAMI Advance Metering SystemOFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple AccessPLC Power Line CommunicationsMIMO Multiple Input Multiple OutputMISO Multiple Input Single Output3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership ProjectOFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division MultiplexingIDMA Interleave Division Multiple AccessWimax Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave AccessSUN Smart Utility NetworksCPE Customer-premises equipmentEPS Electrical Power SystemQOS Quality of ServiceOSI Open System InterconnectionBPL Broadband over Power LinesCTP Capacitated Transshipment ProblemIP Internet ProtocolBER Bit Error RateQPSK Quadrature Phase Shift KeyingBPSK Binary Phase Shift KeyingDPSK Differential Quadrature Phase Shift KeyingSCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
This chapter gives a brief outlook of the Smart Grid and its functionality.Data communication on the Smart Grid is explained in detail.
1.1 What is Smart Grid
Smart Grid is a vision that how to generate, distribute and consume en-ergy. In addition to this, it is how to overcome the shortcomings of todayselectricity grids. The main goal is to mitigate the impact of disruptions ofthe energy supply as well as to enhance security and reliability of energyinfrastructure. The operation and meaning of the smart grid can be bestunderstood with the figure given below.
Figure 1.1: Smart Grid
The topology of Smart Grid is shown in the fig. 1.1. It mainly consistsof domains, interfaces and its distribution. There have been radical changesin a way to generate, distribute and consume energy. The electric grids wereoriginally designed to distribute the electricity from small number of gener-ators to millions of the consumers based on the concept that supply mustfollow the demand . This phenomenon required additional generatorsto be instantly being available to balance the increase in demand and alsothe installed generation capacity is sufficient to satisfy the demand at thepeak time. In addition, consumers are charged for electricity on a per unitbasis however the real cost of generating the electricity varies throughoutthe day . Clearly, because of the inefficiencies in the previous electricitygrid system, a more dynamic and smarter grid system was paramount.
This vision has led to the innovation of smart grids, which are improvedelectricity grids where household and businesses act as both generators aswell as consumer of electricity, and were the information and electricity flowtogether in network.Smart Grid is an electricity delivery system with com-munication facilities and information facilities for the efficient and reliablegrid operation with improved customer satisfaction and cleaner environ-ment. Smart Grids are also called Green Communication because it is na-ture friendly technology. By using the Two-way communication capabilitiesof the smart meter one can enhance the current power system. Smart Gridwill allow the flow of energy from consumers to outside network dependingon demand and supply conditions. Features of smart grid Includes real timemonitoring and exchange of the Information . Consumers can adjustelectric supply according to their needs, cost, power, level of reliability andenvironmental Impact.
Smart Grids will remove any hindrance in economic growth and facili-tates the delivery of the energy from the renewable sources of energy likewind, sun and water. There would be faster detection of outages and black-outs and rapid system restoration will improve the security and reliabilityof the grid . Moreover, Grid will be less vulnerable to potential attacksand threats. The current electric power grid is outdated and cannot supportthe increase in the energy consumption. Hence, it is expected that smartgrids which are more reliable, secure, economic, efficient and environmentalfriendly grids will replace the old power grids.
The backbone of the Smart Grids is the Advance Metering Infrastruc-ture (AMI) consisting of the Smart Meters and the communication networkwhich has capability to monitor and repair the faulty network in the realtime .The utilization structure of smart grid needs to be analyzed beforeimplementation of the AMI. The utilization or the component structure ofthe smart gird is shown in the below figure.
The fig. 1.2 describes the utilization structure of grid from the generationto the consumption. The figure mainly explains the component utilization.The vision of the Smart Grid is to research, develop and demonstrate a
Figure 1.2: Smart Grid Structure
two-way electricity network that will meet the increasing energy demands.Electricity power Grids must be:
Flexible: Grid should easily adapt to the changing and challengingenvironment.
Accessible: Grid must be accessible to all users and should have highefficiency local generation with zero or low carbon emission.
Reliable: Grid must assure improved quality of supply and securityand must adapt itself with increase in demand without any hazardsand uncertainties.
Economic: Grid is best valued through innovations and efficient energymanagement.
1.2 Data Communication on Smart Grid
The smart grid system requires high speed sensing of the date from all thesensor nodes within few power cycles . The AMI is employ the meterson the grid and which are used to provide all the vital information to themaster head end within very short duration of time. The two head endand the meter are located on the different parts of the network. Orthogo-nal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based communication isused over low voltage power line in CENELEC band A and B . In Or-thogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access channel model time varyingand frequency selectivity power grid channels and noise is undertaken. AMIprovides an ability to use electricity more efficiently and monitor and repairthe networks in the real time.
The multiuser communication over the low voltage undergoes variouschallenges such as large number of sensors, time varying circuits, high back-ground noise, and varying Grid topologies . The channel model viewscurrent grid configuration as a Multiple Input Multiple Output/Multiple In-put Single Output (MIMO/MISO) channel and use the channel informationto develop on OFDMA based transrecievers.
The time variation of the loads represent the complex frequency depen-dent, switching behavior in the CENELEC band of the residential and com-mercial powered equipments. The communication is established betweenthe head end and the meter . Not only the channel frequency selectivitycauses the fading but switching on/off of loads also causes fading. This isdue to the time varying behavior of the circuit elements. Time varying loadscauses non-linear behavior . However, non-lineari