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<ul><li> 1. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 7 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das </li></ul> <p> 2. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-2 Opening Vignette The impact of SARS on tourism - real risk was low, but perceived risk was high - led to negative attitude towards Canada, especially Toronto Attitude change through - value-expressive appeals - use of celebrities 3. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-3 Attitudes A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object A positive attitude is generally a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for purchase Mercedes seen as top of class but intention to purchase was low 4. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-4 Characteristics of Attitudes Attitudes have an object Attitudes are learned Can unlearn Attitudes have behavioural, evaluative and affective components Predisposition to act Overall evaluation Positive or negative feelings continued 5. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-5 Characteristics of Attitudes Attitudes have consistency Attitudes have direction, degree, strength and centrality Positive or negative Extent of positive or negative feelings Strength of feelings Closeness to core cultural values Attitudes occur within a situation 6. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-6 Four Basic Functions of Attitudes The Utilitarian Function How well it performs The Ego-defensive Function To protect ones self-concept The Value-expressive Function To convey ones values and lifestyles The Knowledge Function A way to gain knowledge 7. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-7 How are attitudes learned? Classical conditioning - through past associations Operant conditioning - through trial and reinforcement Cognitive learning through information processing Cognitive dissonance theory Attribution theory 8. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-8 Attitude Models Structural Models of Attitudes Tri-component Attitude Model Multi-attribute Attitude Model Both assume a rational model of human behaviour Other models of attitude formation Cognitive dissonance model Attribution theory 9. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-9 The Tri-component Model Cognitive Component knowledge and perceptions acquired through direct experience and information from various sources. Affective component Emotions and feelings about the object Conative or Behavioural Component Action tendencies toward the object 10. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-10 ConationConation AffectAffect Cognition 11. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-11 MultiMulti--attribute Attitude Modelsattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. Examples Attitude-toward-object Model Attitude-toward-behaviour Model Theory-of-Reasoned-Action Model 12. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-12 Attitude-toward-object model Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations Ao= n WiXib i=1 Where: Ao= Attitude towards the object O Wi = importance of attribute i Xib = belief that brand b has a certain level of attribute I continued 13. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-13 Theory of Reasoned Action A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes, intentions, and behaviour 14. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-14 15. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-15 Attitude-Toward-Behaviour Model A consumers attitude toward a specific behaviour is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable). 16. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-16 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. Post-purchase Dissonance Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment 17. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-17 Why Might Behaviour Precede Attitude Formation? Cognitive Dissonance Theory Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase)Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Form AttitudeForm Attitude 18. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-18 Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory Examines how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other peoples behaviour. Examples Self-perception Theory Attribution toward others 19. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-19 Self-Perception Theory Attitudes developed by reflecting on their own behaviour Judgments about own behaviour Internal and external attributions Continued 20. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-20 Self-Perception Theory Consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution). Foot-In-The-Door Technique 21. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-21 How We Test Our Attributions Distinctiveness Consistency over time Consistency over modality Consensus 22. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-22 Attitudes and Marketing Strategy Appeal to motivational functions of attitudes Associate product with a special group, cause or event Resolve conflicts among attitudes Influence consumer attributions Continued 23. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-23 Attitudes and Marketing Strategy Alter components of the attitude Change relative evaluation of attributes Change brand beliefs Add an attribute Change overall brand evaluation Change beliefs about competitors brands Continued 24. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education 7-24 Attitudes and Marketing Strategy Change affect first through classical conditioning Change behaviour first through operant conditioning </p>