Rolf pfeifer conferencia magistral

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Soft RoboticsSelf-organization, embodiment,

and biological inspirationThe four messages of embodiment

Tecnolgico de Monterrey Campus Quertaro22 February 2011

Rolf Pfeifer, Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryDepartment of informatics, University of Zurich, Switzerland

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Thanks to ...

Hajime AsamaRudolf BannaschJosh BongardSimon BovetRodney BrooksWeidong ChenSteve CollinsHolk CrusePaolo DarioRaja DravidRodney DouglasPeter EggenbergerMartin FischerDario FloreanoToshio FukudaRobert FullGabriel GomezFumio HaraAlejandro HernandezOwen HollandKoh HosodaFumiya IidaAuke Ijspeert Takashi Ikegami

Masayuki InabaAkio IshiguroOussama KathibAlois KnollYasuo KuniyoshiLukas LichtensteigerMax LungarellaRen LuoShuhei MiyashitaNorman PackardMike RinderknechtRoy RitzmannAndy RuinaGiulio SandiniOlaf SpornsLuc SteelsRuss TedrakeEsthen ThelenSethu VijakyakumarRuediger WehnerMartijn WisseHiroshi YokoiWenwei YuMarc Ziegler

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

for their ideas

Hajime AsamaRudolf BannaschJosh BongardSimon BovetRodney BrooksWeidong ChenSteve CollinsHolk CrusePaolo DarioRaja DravidRodney DouglasPeter EggenbergerMartin FischerDario FloreanoToshio FukudaRobert FullGabriel GomezFumio HaraAlejandro HernandezOwen HollandKoh HosodaFumiya IidaAuke Ijspeert Takashi Ikegami

Masayuki InabaAkio IshiguroOussama KathibAlois KnollYasuo KuniyoshiLukas LichtensteigerMax LungarellaRen LuoShuhei MiyashitaNorman PackardMike RinderknechtRoy RitzmannAndy RuinaGiulio SandiniOlaf SpornsLuc SteelsRuss TedrakeEsthen ThelenSethu VijakyakumarRuediger WehnerMartijn WisseHiroshi YokoiWenwei YuMarc Ziegler

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Goals

buzzword embodiment

seeing things differently

4

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: Self-assembly Take home message

5

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Getting into the spirit of embodiment

6

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

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The spirit of embodiment

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Crazy Bird Morphology, Control

8

loosely hanging feetrubber/plastic

Design and construction:Mike Rinderknecht

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Message 1: Physical embedding

Studying brain (or control) not sufficient: Understanding of

embedding of brain into organism organisms morphological and material

properties

interaction with environmentrequired

9

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Let me be clear

The brain is important!

10

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Let me be clear

The brain is important!

but not the whole story ...

11

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A bit of background

12

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Artificial Intelligence goals

1. Understanding biological systems

2. Making abstractions, developing theory

3. Applications

13

animals

humans

beer-serving robot

vacuum cleanerFreitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

Didabot

Famez

Sita

Rufus T.Firefly

Ms. Gloria Teasdale

MorphoFreitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

AmouseSahabotI/IIMelissaTrippSamuraiAnalogrobDexterolatorStumpyEyebotMindstormsKheperasMitsubishiForkleg

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

Stumpy, Monkey, Puppy, Min-dog, Wheeled Walker, Mini-Stumpy, Wanda, Dumbo, Rabbit

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

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AI Lab Robots(exploration of morphology)

18

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19

Two views of intelligence

classical: cognition as computation

embodiment: cognition emergent from sensory-motor and interaction processes

Illustrations byShun Iwasawa

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Successes and failures of the classical approach

20

successes

applications (e.g. Google)

chess

consumer electronics

etc.

failures

foundations of behavior

natural forms of intelligence

interaction with real world

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Message 2: Real/Artificial worlds

Understanding of differences between industrial robots and humans/animals and their environments

21

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Industrial environments vs.real world

industrial environments

environment well-known

little uncertainty

predictability

real worldenvironment

limited knowledge and predictability

rapidly changing

high-level of uncertainty

22

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Industrial robots vs. natural systems

23

principles:- strong, precise, fast motors- centralized control- optimization- computing power

Industrial robots

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Industrial robots vs. natural systems

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principles:- low precision- compliant- control distributed throughout body- reactive- coping with uncertainty

humans

no direct transfer of methods

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

26

The brainless robot:walking without control

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

26

The brainless robot:walking without control

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

27

The brainless robot:walking without control

self-stabilization

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

27

The brainless robot:walking without control

self-stabilization

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

28

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

Passive Dynamic Walker

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

29

Passive Dynamic Walker

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

30

Passive Dynamic Walker

self-stabilization

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Short question

memory for walking?

31

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Contrast: Full control hard

32

Sony QrioHonda Asimo

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Extending the ecological niche

Design and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft University

33

self-stabilization

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Extending the ecological niche

Design and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft University

33

self-stabilization

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

34

Denise

self-stabilization

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Message 3: Task distribution

Task distribution between brain (control), body (morphology, materials), and environment

35

morphological computation

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Task distribution between brain (control), body (morphology, materials), and environment

no clear separation between control and hardware (soft robotics)

36

morphological computation

Message 3: Task distribution

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Stumpy: task distribution

37

self-stabilization

almost brainless: 2 actuated jointsspringy materialssurface properties of feet

Design and construction: Raja Dravid, Chandana Paul, Fumiya Iida

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The dancing robot Stumpy

Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

38

Movie:Dynamic Devices and AILab, Zurich

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The dancing robot Stumpy

Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

38

Movie:Dynamic Devices and AILab, Zurich

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Outsourcingfunctionality

Mini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda

39

soft, flexible, elastic materials

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Outsourcingfunctionality

Mini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda

39

soft, flexible, elastic materials

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The robot frog driven by pneumatic actuators (UTokyo)

40

Design and construction: Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo KuniyoshiUniversity of Tokyo

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The robot frog driven by pneumatic actuators (UTokyo)

40

Design and construction: Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo KuniyoshiUniversity of Tokyo

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Grasping

many ways winding spring release exploited by brain

41

outsourcing of functionalitydistribution of control through body

free

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Towards cognitive robots

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Adding sensors: generation of sensory stimulation through action

43

knowledge about environment: pressure, haptic, acceleration, vision, ...

knowledge about own body: angle, torque, force, vestibular,

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Message 4: Physical dynamics and information structure

Induction of patterns of sensory stimulation through physical interaction with environment

raw material for information processing of brain (control)

induction of correlations (information structure)

44

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Loosely swinging arm

preferred trajectories biomechanical constraints

(morphology, materials)

45

elbow joint:passive, self-organizes into proper trajectory

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Loosely swinging arm

preferred trajectories biomechanical constraints

(morphology, materials)

46

elbow joint:passive, self-organizes into proper trajectory

purpose?

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Fitting it all together: thestory

exploration

biomechanical constraints (morphology, materials)

preferred trajectories

generation of rich useful data

induction of information structure (self-structuring)

learning

cross-modal associations (predictions)

47

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Compliance, softness: the next steps

48

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The super-compliant robot ECCEDesign and construction:

Rob Knight robotstudio, GenevaRichard Newcombe Imperial College

Owen Holland Essex/Sussex UniversityHugo Marques, Cristiano Alessandro, Max

Lungarella UZH, experiments

49

Anthropomorphic design

ECCE Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

50

ECCE Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Techfest 2011, IIT Bombay

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Embodied IntelligenceSwitzerland

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

i-Days, LucerneSwitzerlandSeptember 2010

52

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Hannover Fair, ICT Brussels, Science Fair St. Agrve, France

53

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

ECCE with Doris Leuthart, presidentof Switzerland: Innovation Fair 2010

Design and construction:Rob Knight robotstudio, Geneva

Richard Newcombe Imperial CollegeOwen Holland Essex/Sussex University

Jaan Spitz, Pascal Kaufmann UZHHugo Marques, Cristiano Alessandro, Max

Lungarella UZH, experiments

54

Anthropomorphic design

ECCE Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot

der bionische Roboter

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

55

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

55

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

56

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

56

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Essence

self-structuring of sensory data through physical interaction with world

physical process, not computational

pre-requisite for learning

57

Inspiration:John Dewey, 1896 (!)Merleau-Ponty, 1963Bajcsy, 1963; Aloimonos, 1990; Ballard, 1991Sporns, Edelman, and co-workersThelen and Smith (developmental studies)

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: self-assembly Take home message

58

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Applications

classical/algorithmic: chess, search engines, data mining, appliances, control, etc.

embodied/robots in real world:entertainment, education (edutainment), service, medical, hazardous environments, etc.

59

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

60

Entertainment robots

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The flute playing robotRoboter WF-4

Design and construction:Waseda University,Tokyo

61

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The flute playing robotRoboter WF-4

Design and construction:Waseda University,Tokyo

61

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Recptionist at last World Expo

Design and construction:Osaka University, andKokoro Dreams

62

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Recptionist at last World Expo

Design and construction:Osaka University, andKokoro Dreams

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Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The robot teacher Saya(Hiroshi Kobayashi,

Univ. of Science, Tokyo)

63

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Support SuitsExoskeletons

64

HAL, the HybridAssistive Limb

Cyberdyne Inc.Exoskeleton

paralyzed individual to climb Breithorn (Switzerland)

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Wheel chair: controlled by brain waives

65Design and construction:Jose del Millan, EPFL, Switzerland

recognition of subjects intentions based on analysis of non-invasive EEG signals

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

First prototype

66

Design and construction:Konstantinos Dermitzakis

AILab, UZH

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

First prototype

66

Design and construction:Konstantinos Dermitzakis

AILab, UZH

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Fitness center of thefuture?

67

ten, nine, eight,

Robot development by OsakaUniversity and Kokoro DreamsJapan

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg Press

68

Design andconstruction:Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Entertainment and sportsALP: The Adaptive Leg Press

69

Design andconstruction:

Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Entertainment and sportsALP: The Adaptive Leg Press

69

Design andconstructio...