- 1. PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT Engineering Economics
- Mohammad Bilal Firoz Fa.2008/EE/058
- Mohammad Aatif Fa.2008/EE/060
- Khwaja Ameer Hamza* Fa.2008/EE/051
Group Members (In order of appearance) Fig 1.1 A view of the materialistic society. * Indicates Group leader 3. Points to be covered
- How the world functions The Material Economy(Why it happens).
- The Destructive lifespan of everyday products (How it happens).
- Effects - The Global Toxic Emergency.
- An Exploration of Possible solutions.
4. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- The Chain of the Materials Economy.
- Development of Consumerist Culture Conspicous Consumerism.
- Percieved Obsolescence and Psychologically Manipulative Advertising.
- The Linear Nature of the Economy.
5. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- What is the Materials Economy?
- Factors that conventional Economics ignores.
- Environmental Effects of the whole process.
6. How the world functions - The Material Economy 7. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- The term natural resource extraction refers to the extraction of natural resources such as oil , copper , coal and wood from the earth.
- The United States has 5 % of the earths population and uses about the 30% of the worlds resources.
- The top oil user is the USA (17 million barrels per day) and top gas user is the former Soviet Union (23,000 billion cubic feet per year).
- Oil Spills and the dumping of oil into waterways has been extensive poisoning drinking water and destroying vegetation.
- 75% of gas produced is flared causing extensive damage to wildlife and other environmental effects.
- The BP oil spill in the gulf coast could cause a more powerful hurricane.
8. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- Global warming potential of milk production is for 4865% due to emission of methane.
- In 2006 FAO estimated that meat industry contributes 18% of all emissions of greenhouse gasses. This figure was challenged in 2009 by two World-Watch researchers who estimated a 51% minimum.
9. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- We already looked at the ill effects of burning oil and gas in the atmosphere.
- The Distribution Process requires the burning up of huge amounts of fossil fuels to make the simple delivery of a Product.
10. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- 12 percent of the worlds population lives in North America and Western Europe and accounts for 60 percent of private consumption spending but a THIRD of humanity lives in South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa and accounts for only 3.2 percent.
- If the Chinese consume resources in 2031 at a level that Americans do now , grain consumption per person there would climb from around 600 pounds today to around 2000 pounds needed to sustain a typical western diet. This would equate to 1352 million tons of grain , equal to two thirds of all grain harvested from the world in 2004.
- The Average American buys 53 times as many products as someone in China and one Americans consumption of resources is equal to that of 35 indians.
11. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- The Garbage produced by all this consumption is sent to landfills.
- If lucky the garbage is burned up before being disposed of to make it biodegradable. This causes the release of dangerous gases such as dioxin into the atmosphere.
- We produce over 220 million tones of waste per year, nearly 75% of which ends up in landfills.
- Only two man made structures can be seen from the moon , the Great Wall of China and the Fresh Kills landfill , located in Staten Island , USA.
12. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- Victor Lebow The Evil retail analyst from Hell.
13. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- Our enormously productive economy demands that we make consumption our way of life, that we convert the buying and use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfactions, our ego satisfactions, in consumption. The measure of social status, of social acceptance, of prestige, is now to be found in our consumptive patterns. The very meaning and significance of our lives today expressed in consumptive terms. The greater the pressures upon the individual to conform to safe and accepted social standards, the more does he tend to express his aspirations and his individuality in terms of what he wears, drives, eats- his home, his car, his pattern of food serving, his hobbies. These commodities and services must be offered to the consumer with a special urgency. We require not only forced draft consumption, but expensive consumption as well. We need things consumed, burned up, worn out, replaced, and discarded at an ever increasing pace. We need to have people eat, drink, dress, ride, live, with ever more complicated and, therefore, constantly more expensive consumption. The home power tools and the whole do-it-yourself movement are excellent examples of expensive consumption
14. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- Your Value in the Materials Economy is determined by how much you consume.
- Consuming more , lands you a certain set of privileges.
15. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- Percieved Obsolescence is when a product is supposedly presented to you in such a way that you think its obsolete.
- Fashion trends in Electronics and Clothing.
- Fashion magazines and journals indicating latest trends
- We watch more advertisements in 1 year than people 50 years ago were exposed to in an entire life time.
- Krugman TV transmits information not thought about at the time of exposure
Psychologically Manipulative Advertising. 17. How the world functions - The Material Economy
- Assumes infinite resources , makes impractical assumptions.
- A poor choice against circular and environmental economics.
18. The Destructive lifespan of Everyday Products
- The Lifecycle of Electronics.
- Externalization of costs.
- Designed for the dump or planned obsolescence.
Important:Your most common everyday use item such as electronics is designed to last a minimum of 18 months , after which you will either find it ugly due to massive mental manipulation or you will find it non-compatible with everyday products. 19. The Destructive lifespan of Everyday Products
- The average price of a radio from Radio Shack is around $50.
- The materials used in Manufacturing are shipped from Africa , with production taking place in China and shipped to be consumed in the USA.
- Externalization of costs. Who pays for your product?
- According to UNICEF , across Africa, there are an estimated 80 million child workers, a number that could rise to 100 million by 2015.
- The United Nations labor agency estimates there are now 100000 to 250000child gold miners in West Africa alone !
20. The Destructive lifespan of Everyday Products
- Have you noticed your Nokia charger?
- Planned Obsolescence Products designed to be replaced as quickly as possible.
- The sudden change in Nokia models (e.g 6600 and 6630)
- The whole idea is deliberate - Designed for the dump.
Important:Your most common everyday use item such as electronics is designed to last a minimum of 18 months , after which you will either find it ugly due to massive mental manipulation or you will find it non-compatible with everyday products. 21. The Destructive lifespan of Everyday Products
- What is an Ecological debt?
- What is a carbon footprint?
- Electronics Industry(including Power) has one of the largest debt and footprint.
22. The Global Toxic Emergency
- Dioxin and Alarming Carbon emission levels.
- Cap and Trade emission fees The Scam.
23. The Global Toxic Emergency
- Factories pollute the atmosphere and water streams.
- Main cause of acid rain causing a loss of crops , animals and clean water drinking facilities.
- When an ecosystem becomes unsustainable, it leaves behind people with no other option.
- Factory workers pay with their health. According to IBMs own research workers in computer chip manufacturing facilities have 40% more miscarriages, have more chances to die from blood, brain or kidney cancer.
24. The Global Toxic Emergency
- Dioxin is the name generally given to a class of super-toxic chemicals.
- Its toxicity is second only to radioactive waste.
- In Love Canal, hundreds of families needed to abandon their homes due to dioxin contamination.
- Penetration of Dioxin in our body.
25. The Global Toxic Emergency
- Consumerism has led to increasing demand of goods and hence production is increasing.
- It is general consensus that our CO2 in atmosphere should be reduced to 350ppm but right now it is at 387ppm.
- With current trend it is unlikely that carbon emission is going to be reduced since all our economy runs on fossil fuels.
26. The Global Toxic Emergency
- Non-biodegradable waste is something that is not recyclable and hence does not mix in earth.
- Some of this waste is incinerated adding to more atmospheric pollution.
- Landfill is also not a healthy solution for such waste as we are aware of love canal disaster.
27. The Global Toxic Emergency
- Government will allow a certain amount of permits for pollution.
- Number of permits would decrease with each passing year.
- Corporations get rich and pollution seems reduced.
- *Cap and giveaway i.e. most industries got the vast majority of permits for free.
- Failure in Europe, instead the polluters made millions of dollars in excess profits through trading permits.
- Offsetting can be used as cheating and hence add more to pollution instead of decreasing it.
28. The Global Toxic Emergency
29. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Take back laws and innovation.
- Corporate Environmental Responsibility.
30. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Renewable energy is natural energy which does not have a limited supply.
- Renewable energy can be used again and again, and will never run out.
- Forms of renewable energy are Wind , Solar , Geothermal , Hydropower and Biomass.
31. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Wind is currently the worlds fastest growing energy source.
- Pakistanis building wind power plants inJhimpir,Gharo,Keti BandarandBin QasiminSindh.
- China becomes world leader,installing 18.9 Giga watt, more than 50 % of the world market.
- Germany keeps its number one position in Europe with 27215Megawatt.
32. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Zero Waste is a whole-system approach to redesigning the flow of resources through society.
- Masdar city in Abudhabi, UAE is an example of a zero waste project.
- Zero waste is a sign of inefficiency, the reduction of waste usually reduces costs.
- Hewlett Packard in Roseville, CA reduced its waste by 95% and saved $870,564 in 1998
33. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- What are Take back laws and what is Innovation?
- The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is theEuropean Communitydirective 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment(WEEE) which, together with theRoHS Directive2002/95/EC, becameEuropean Lawin February 2003, setting collection,recyclingand recovery targets for all types ofelectrical goods.
- 11 countries have mandatory electronic recovery laws.
34. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Eco-Friendly electronics.
- Micheal Dells Bamboo computer.
35. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- 51 largest economies in the world are Corporations.
- Citizens United v Federal Election Commission, 130 S.Ct. 876 (2010), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited because of the First Amendment.
- Remember the Psychological Advertising technique?
36. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Material flows in a workstations and buffers and re-enters in a system.
- Non-toxic and anti-pollutants production
Extraction Production Distribution Consumption DisposalWork 37. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Basic tool in closed loop
- Use of non-toxic materials
- More usable and recyclable products
- Development of durable products
38. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- An Efficient Justice system.
- Caters to the 3 pillars of sustainability.
- Businesses suffer as the rest of the community suffers.
- Economic power resides locally, sustaining healthy community life and natural life as well as long-term economic viability.
39. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- Broader area of Corporate Social Responsibility.
- Do companies have a social responsibility to protect the environment beyond legal requirements?
- Recycling and biodegradation of materials makes healthy environments.
40. An Exploration of Possible Solutions.
- It leaves a positive impact on employees, current members and stock holders
- Organizations lasts longer if they have a strong reputation of corporate environmental responsibility
- It increases company sales, market position, strengthen brand positioning, encourage investors .
- Improves public image of an organization
- Our whole motivation is inspired from Annie Leonards The Story of stuff .
- Independent references are :