Pastoralism, payments for ecosystem services (PES) and ecosystem-based adaptation

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Presented by Philip Osano at the BEST Project Policy Maker, Practitioner, Community User and Researcher Workshop, Nairobi, 13 August 2013

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  • 1. Pastoralism, payments for ecosystem services (PES) and ecosystem-based adaptation Philip Osano BEST Project Policy Maker, Practitioner, Community User and Researcher Workshop, Nairobi, 13 August 2013
  • 2. Presentation Outline 1.Background Analytical Framework 2.Study Sites in southern Kenya Drylands 3.Drought Assessment 4.PES Effect in relation to 2008-09 Drought: Coping Strategies 5. Synergies and Trade-offs
  • 3. Conservancy effects and Coping and Risk mitigation 1.AnalyitcalFramework
  • 4. 2.StudySites
  • 5. 2.StudySites Site Kitengela Mara Ol Kiramatian Conservancy/ PES program The Wildlife Conservation Lease (WLP) Olare Orok and Naboisho Conservancies Ol Kiramatian Conservancy Conservancy area (ha, 2010) 16,700 30,666a 21,612 Protected area Maasai Mara National Reserve n/a Rainfall (mm.yr-1) 370-800 (bimodal) 877 - 1341 (bimodal) 350-600 (bimodal) Land Tenure Private Private Communal PES Landuse regulations Restrictions on land sale, subdivision, fencing and cropping Restriction on land sales, settlements, livestock grazing Land use zonation (irrigated crops, wildlife and grazing) Conservancy funding model Public funding (Direct payments) Market (Direct payment) Market (Indirect payment) Characterisation of Study Sites
  • 6. 3.DroughtAssessment Findings in 3 study sites Differences in the occurrence, frequency and intensity of droughts in the two study sites Extreme and severe droughts are increasing but are localised in the two study sites The 2008-2009 drought was Severe in both study sites
  • 7. 3.DroughtAssessment Kitengela
  • 8. 3.DroughtAssessment Maasai Mara
  • 9. 3.DroughtAssessment Ol Kiramatian
  • 10. 4.PESEffectsinrelationto2008-09 Drought Olare Orok and Kitengela PES Schemes
  • 11. 4.PESEffectsinrelationto2008-09 Drought Olare Orok and Kitengela PES Schemes 8 1 2 80 2 1 3 2 37 0 11 19 17 15 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Basic needs Purchase of water Human health Education Veterinary expenses Purchase of livestock Hay/lease of grazing land Other expenses ExpenditureonPESIncome(%) WLP 2009 OOC 2009 37% 30% 33% Basic Needs Human Capital Livestock and Products OOC BASIC NEEDS HUMAN CAPITAL LIVESTOCK AND PRODUCTS
  • 12. 5.SynergiesandTrade-Offs Interactions in PES rules and Coping Strategies Conservancy effect Income Land Management Ecosystem Services Wildlife Biomass Site/Coping strategy Mara Mobility +/- +/- ++ Diversification +/- +/- ++ ++ Water infrastructure ++ Land markets +/- +/- Kitengela Mobility ++ +/- ++ Diversification +/- +/- ++ ++ Water infrastructurea ++ Land markets +/- +/- Ol Kiramatian Mobility ++ +/- ++ Diversification ++ ++ ++ ++ Water infrastructure ++ Land markets ++ +/- Notes: ++: synergies; +/-: synergy and trade-offs; --: trade-offs
  • 13. 5.SynergiesandTrade-Offs Synergy: Fencing and mobility
  • 14. Thank YOU ALL

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