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OPS Forum SSA Preparatory Programme 05.12.2008

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The Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme, a new initiative of the Agency, was accepted at the November 2008 Ministerial Conference in The Hague as a new optional programme of the Agency covering the time frame 2009-11.

Text of OPS Forum SSA Preparatory Programme 05.12.2008

  • 1.SSA Programme OPS-G Forum 5 thDecember 2008, ESOC, Darmstadt N.Bobrinsky, ESA

2. Need for a European SSA System

  • Space assets have become indispensable enablers for a wide spectrum of applications. The Europeanindependent utilisation of spacefor research or services depends on the capability to safely operate the European space infrastructures.
  • SSA serves the implementation of thestrategic missions of the European Space Policybased on peaceful use of outer space by all states, by supporting the autonomous capacity to securely and safely operate the critical European space infrastructures
  • Space based capabilities are indispensable to realise this commitment in an effective manner . Thedependency on these space based assets will grow , as evident also outside Europe. This dependency raises concerns, because any shutdown of even a part of the space infrastructure would have major consequences for economic activities and would considerably impair the organisation of e.g. emergency services.
  • SSA also serves theEU Lisbon objectivesby supporting the development of new applications, new jobs and new market opportunities in the space sector
  • Space Situational Awareness can be seen as a basis for any future measures (political, diplomatic, regulatory, technical) toguarantee access to space

3. Initials steps in establishinga European SSA System

  • Initial studies:ESA has performed in 2006-2008 several industrial studies, the outcome of which was:
    • the compilation of a SSA Users Needs list (established by a selected group of Users Representatives)
    • The translation of these needs into technical requirements
    • the identification of high level architectural options
    • the identification of potential technological gaps
  • SSA URG important role:A Users' representatives group continuously supports ESA in this initiative. The Group is composed by representatives of EU Military Staff, EDA, EC, Ministries of Defence of I, F, UK, E, D, B, N, by National Space Agencies of I, F, UK, E, D, B, N, CH, by the UN-WMO, by commercial operators (e.g. Inmarsat, Eutelsat) and insurance companies (e.g. MARSH). This Users Group will continue its advisory role during the execution of the SSA Programme.
  • Formal go ahead for the Programme Proposal:Consultation of ESA Member States at Council level has taken place in December 2007. The SSA initiative has been very well received. As a result, an Enabling Resolution (March 2008) has mandated ESA to prepare a Programme Proposal for the ESA Ministerial Council in November 2008.

4. Objectives and general context

  • The general objective is the establishment of a reliable and coherent SSA Programme covering the time frame 2009 2019. The first phase will consist of a SSA preparatory Programme and will cover the period 2009 - 2011
    • 2009 - 2011 :Governance, Data Policy
    • Requirements, architecture of the future EuropeanSSA system, delivery of precursor services
    • radar bread boarding, pilot Data Centres
    • Phase 2 (2012 2019): Implementation of a fully operational European SSAsystem
  • The first part of this Programme, theSSA Preparatory Programme , has been prepared for approval at the MC 2008,and has been approved !
  • The second part of this Programme, theSSA-Phase 2,will be prepared during 2011, taking into account the results of the SSA preparatory Programme, and is planned to be submitted to the approval of ESA Member States at the MC2011 (tbc). It will cover the timeframe 2012-2019.

5. The four domains of the European SSA System

  • The European SSA System can be broken down in four distinct domains:
  • Survey and Trackingof objects in Earth-bound orbits
  • Imaging
  • Space Weather
  • Near Earth Objects (NEOs):hazardeous asteroids and comets
  • During the preparatory Programme (2009 2011), onlySurvey and
  • Tracking , as well asSpace WeatherandNEOsdomains will be addressed.
  • TheImagingof space targets, especially from sensors in Space will be
  • addressed at a later stage (phase 2, as from 2012), once the governance,
  • data policy and data security matters will have been solved.

6. European SSA high level overview Ground-based Radar and Optical Sensors Ground-based Space Weather Sensors Space Sensors SSA Center(s) User 1 User 2 User 3 User X User 5 User 4 SSA Data Policy 7. European SSA System Functional Diagram 8. European SSA System Functional Diagram 9. Survey and Tracking (1)

  • Survey and Tracking Services
    • Detection and Tracking of objects in Earth-bound orbits (LEO, MEO,
    • GEO, HEO)
    • Identification and correlation of tracked objects
    • Establishment of a catalogue
    • Tasking of radar and optical sensors for follow-up observations
    • During the development / prototyping phase, distribution of optical and
    • radar tracking data, according to an agreed Data Policy
    • Identification of high-risk conjunctions between tracked objects, issue of
    • alerts and recommendations for avoidance manoeuvres
    • Prediction of high-risk re-entry events and initiation of alert procedures
    • detection of on-orbit explosions or collisions and issue of alerts
  • The Survey and Tracking Sensors can be very expensive (ca. 120 ME for
  • a ground-based surveillance radar, able to detect 10cm objects at 1000 Km)

10. Survey and Tracking (2) Estimated number of objects in orbit Distribution and observability of space objects (MASTER 2005) optical difficult radar observability 15,000 to 38,000 km 120 to 2,000 km altitudes [km] 13.8 24.8 5.6 0.2 23.3 32.1 606,474 1 19.0 15.9 4.8 0.2 15.1 44.8 90,541 3 18.4 14.3 4.5 0.5 13.5 48.6 44,092 5 16.4 10.7 3.9 1.0 13.6 54.2 20,505 10 14.1 7.2 3.3 2.2 16.5 56.6 9,091 30 16.2 7.0 3.7 2.7 18.1 52.3 6,549 50 20.0 7.1 4.5 0.9 17.5 50.0 4,658 100 res.[%] trans.[%] res.[%] res.[%] trans.[%] res.[%] count d [cm] GEO MEO-H & GEO MEO-H MEO-L LEO space objectslarger than d [cm] 11. Survey and Tracking (3) Distribution of objects in Earth orbit 12. Survey and Tracking (4) Sensors for surveillance and tracking (images provided byH.Klinkrad and H.Krag) Graves (France) Bi-static surveillance radar 13. Survey and Tracking (5) Sensors for surveillance and tracking FGAN (Germany) tracking radar Zimmerwald (Switzerland) Tracking telescope 14. Survey and Tracking (6) Sensors for surveillance and tracking Cobra Dane (USA) surveillance and tracking radar AN/FPS-85Eglin AFB UHF: 442 MHz 32 MW peak power 5134 TX modules 4660 RX modules V acuum tube technology: upgrade to solid statestudied in 1994 15. Imaging (1)

  • Imaging services (not addressed during the SSA Preparatory Programme)
    • Imaging of objects in Earth-bound orbits (LEO, MEO, GEO, HEO )
    • Provision of information about the state of man-made space objects
    • Provision of information about the state (deployment, pointing , ) of
    • satellite appendages
    • Provision of information for the visualization and identification of space
    • objects
  • Imaging can be performed by means of radars or telescopes

16. Imaging (2) Radar image of Envisat (2005) 17. Imaging (3) 2007-Jun-19 ISS range: 350 km 0.64 mf9.6 Ritchey-Chretien Picture taken in Boston, US Optical image of the ISS (2007) 18.

  • What is Space Weather about?Effects of the sun, of the solar wind, solar flares, status of magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere, cosmic radiation effects
  • Space Weather services
    • Spacecraft and payload operations radiation protection.
    • Thermosphere modelling for spacecraft drag calculation
    • Launcher radiation protection for operations
    • Space environment modelling for spacecraft design
    • Human space flight radiation protection
    • Ionospheric interference for navigation satellite signals
    • Space environment modelling for SSA survey and tracking
  • A significant amount of activities have been performed at ESTEC (lead E.Daly, R.Marsden, A.Hilgers, A.Glover) and at ESOC (lead A.Donati, F. di Marco and other staff from OPS-HS)

Space Weather (1) 19. Space Weather (2) 20. Space Weather (3) Source A.Donati/F. di Marco Affected by Local Space Environment Affected by Ionospheric Disturbances Affected by Geomag. Induced Currents Affected by Local Space Environment Affected by Ionospheric Disturbances Air Transport Services Affected by Geomag. Induced Currents Spacecraft Operations Services Launcher Support Human Spaceflight Support Science Missions Operations Servi