Nonwovens for technical applications

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  • NONWOVENS FOR

    TECHNICAL

    APPLICATIONS

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep

    (Turkey)

    Oscar Calvo

    R&D Group on Textile

    Finishing, Health and

    Environment

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    4. CASE STUDIES AND SUCCESSFUL STORIES

    5. CONCLUSIONS

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications 2

    SUMMARY

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    When nonwovens are involved in textile applications, in most cases

    some auxiliary processes are also required (technical finishing

    processes/technologies), and some of them are available at AITEX:

    3

    Coating

    Lamination / bonding

    Surface treatments

    Electrospinning

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Air-laid

    Wet-laid

    Nonwoven-based

    technical application

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    2 main technologies are available for lab trials and testing of new

    fibers for innovative nonwovens:

    4

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwoven production (lab scale)

    Air-laid technology: very short fiber material can be applied.

    Wet-laid technology: dispersion of the short fibers using water.

  • Our pilot plant can apply wet finishing on textiles by padding

    (impregnation) or by knife coating (on air and over roll) techniques.

    Maximum width: 50 cm; it can works in a speed range of 1 - 10 m/min;

    drying-curing temperatures: 30 - 200C; pressure for padding (control of

    the pick-up/uptake) can be applied in the range of 1 - 6 bar.

    5

    Auxiliary technologies: coating/padding

    Knitted / weaved fabrics but also

    nonwovens can be processed,

    using some polymeric binders

    (acrylics, PUs) or some functional finishing formulations

    (liquid repellents, antimicrobial,

    FRs, UV protectors).

    1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • Hotmelt lamination technologies are based in the use of adhesives that

    are applied in a melted state (from 60 - 80 to 220C depending the

    adhesive type) solidifying again quickly when are cooled down. Hotmelt

    adhesives are dry compounds (solid content: 100%) and are applied

    without the use of water or solvents. Pilot plant for trials:

    Speed: 2 - 18 m/min.

    Width: 250 mm.

    *Different gravure rollers: 10, 15, 30 g/m2

    Thermoplastic adhesives:

    - polyolefins (PE, PP).

    - etilen-vynil-acetate (EVA).

    - copolyamides (PA).

    - copolyesters (PES).

    - thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs).

    Reactive adhesives:

    - reactive polyurethanes (PUR).

    - reactive polyolefins (APAO).

    6

    Engraved* roller system available

    FOR BONDING

    DIFFERENT

    MATERIALS

    (including NWs)

    1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    Auxiliary technologies: hotmelt lamination/bonding

  • Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    Plasma technology (dry process using only gas as raw material) is a

    kind of surface treatment that activates polymeric materials (including

    yarns, fabrics or membranes) increasing their reactivity. Plasma

    treatments only modify the performance of the surface (not other

    properties of the bulky material).

    Activation of the textile surface (to improve wettability/adhesion

    behavior) or possibilities to develop repellent nanocoatings on the

    fabric surface (by plasmapolimerization) can be achieved. 2 pilot plants.

    7

    Surface treatments (by plasma technologies)

    Low pressure plasma

    Atmospheric (corona

    discharge) plasma

    To improve wettability:

    Inorganic gasses (O2, N2)

    To obtain repellency:

    Organic monomers that

    can polymerize

    Power source:

    100W to 1400W

    Speed process:

    5 to 50 m/min

    1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

  • Electrospinning is used for the production of nanofibers, starting from a

    polymer solution. Method: high voltage is applied to a polymer solution

    (some electroconductive performance). One electrode of the voltage

    source is placed into the solution and the other is connected to the

    collector of nanofibers (usually a NW). When charges within the solution

    reached a critical amount, a fluid jet will erupt from the droplet at the tip of

    the needle resulting in the formation of a Taylor cone. The electrospinning

    jet will travel towards the region of lower potential, which in most cases, is

    a grounded collector. A web of solid randomly oriented nanofibers is

    deposited on the surface of the grounded collector. 4 pilot plants available.

    8

    Electrospinning technologies

    Taylor cone

    Nanofibers (NF) web

    Randomly oriented

    Collector (micro)

    NF web (nano)

    1. INTRODUCTION TO AITEXs RESOURCES ON NW TECHNOLOGIES

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    9

    Nonwovens (also for coating and laminating) is a growing worldwide

    market.

    The key processes to manufacture nonwovens are:

    Spunbond + meltblown.

    Needlepunch.

    Thermal or chemical bond.

    Spunlace / hydroentanglement.

    Air-laid.

    Wet-laid.

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Taken from KELLIE SOLUTIONS. TCL 2012.

  • 10

    The melted filaments are swirled around and then deposited on the wire

    mesh belt as a random nonwoven. This web is transferred to a bonding

    calender that uses heat and pressure.

    TECHNOLOGIES:

    NONWOVEN

    TECHNOLOGIES

    SPUNBOND &

    MELTBLOWN

    NEEDLEPUNCH

    THERMAL / CHEMICAL

    BONDING

    SPUNLACE

    AIR-LAID

    WET-LAID

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    - Quite high air permeability.

    - Good mechanical & wear properties.

    - Soft and comfortable.

    - Average weight is 10 to 150 g/m2.

    - Mainly for hygiene products.

    - Protective apparel.

    - Construction, agrotextiles - Battery separators.

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 11

    Mechanical bonding method: fibers are transported with felting needles

    and interlocked in the nonwoven structure. This procedure increases

    the friction between the fibers, which reinforces the nonwoven.

    TECHNOLOGIES:

    NONWOVEN

    TECHNOLOGIES

    SPUNBOND &

    MELTBLOWN

    NEEDLEPUNCH

    THERMAL / CHEMICAL

    BONDING

    SPUNLACE

    AIR-LAID

    WET-LAID

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    - High speeds (> 150 m/min).

    - It permits the use of recycled material.

    - Fiber count ranging from 1 - 200 dtex.

    - Average weight is 30 to 3.000 g/m2.

    - Cleaning wipes, home textiles - Medical and hygiene products.

    - Automotive, composites - Filters, geotextiles, protective apparel...

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 12

    The nonwoven web is consolidated in a thermal (hot calendering) or

    chemical way (impregnation). Thermal bonding uses the thermoplastic

    properties of certain synthetic fibres to form bonds under controlled

    heating; chemical bonding is based on the application of a liquid

    (bonding agent).

    TECHNOLOGIES:

    NONWOVEN

    TECHNOLOGIES

    SPUNBOND &

    MELTBLOWN

    NEEDLEPUNCH

    THERMAL / CHEMICAL

    BONDING

    SPUNLACE

    AIR-LAID

    WET-LAID

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    - Mixture of natural / synthetic fibers.

    - Different liquids for impregnation.

    - Medium speeds for production.

    - Industrial applications, composites - Automotive, acoustics, agriculture - Electrical insulation, coating/flocking

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    THERMAL

    CHEMICAL

  • 13

    Spunlacing uses high-speed jets of water to strike a web to intermingle

    the fibers. A vacuum within the roll removes used water from the product,

    preventing flooding of the product. Spunlacing can be carried out using

    natural or man-made fibers, or blends. Water recyclability of the system

    should be high.

    TECHNOLOGIES:

    NONWOVEN

    TECHNOLOGIES

    SPUNBOND &

    MELTBLOWN

    NEEDLEPUNCH

    THERMAL / CHEMICAL

    BONDING

    SPUNLACE

    AIR-LAID

    WET-LAID

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    - High-water-pressure machines are used.

    - Softness and comfortable hand.

    - Weight: 20-800g/m2; speed: 5-300 m/min

    - Wipes, medical & surgical, cotton pads.

    - Roofing felts and geotextiles.

    - Apparel.

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 14

    Major advantage: very short fiber material can be applied. This is of

    special interest for recycled fiber material such as cotton waste (e.g.

    from spinning and yarn material). The fibers are fed into an air stream and

    from there to a moving belt or perforated drum: they form a randomly

    oriented web.

    TECHNOLOGIES:

    NONWOVEN

    TECHNOLOGIES

    SPUNBOND &

    MELTBLOWN

    NEEDLEPUNCH

    THERMAL / CHEMICAL

    BONDING

    SPUNLACE

    AIR-LAID

    WET-LAID

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    - Air-laid webs have a low density.

    - Greater softness.

    - Absence of laminar structure.

    - Automotive and transport applications.

    - Composites, geotextiles, agriculture - Roofing felts.

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 15

    Its a modified papermaking process. Main steps: 1) Swelling and dispersion of the fiber in water and transport of the suspension on a

    continuous traveling screen; 2) Continuous web formation on the screen

    as a result of filtration; 3) Drying/bonding of the web. Water recyclability

    of the system.

    TECHNOLOGIES:

    NONWOVEN

    TECHNOLOGIES

    SPUNBOND &

    MELTBLOWN

    NEEDLEPUNCH

    THERMAL / CHEMICAL

    BONDING

    SPUNLACE

    AIR-LAID

    WET-LAID

    2. NONWOVEN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    - Innovative technology (5 - 10% of NWs).

    - Usually 2 - 30 mm fibers are used.

    - Bonding by hot calender or chemicals.

    - Composites, reinforcement materials - Roofing felts, filters, insulating uses - Sanitary and hygiene applications.

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    16

    Nonwovens have a strong influence in the EU-28 textile industry. But

    currently Asian countries are increasing their production force.

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    Taken from KELLIE SOLUTIONS. TCL 2012.

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    17

    The growth of non-wovens and of composites and their relation with

    technical textiles.

    In the past decade, the Technical Textiles sector has grown by 22%.

    The technical textile sector is undergoing significant industrial change with

    the growing importance of new applications (medical, sport and leisure,

    aeronautics, environment), and a radical move from traditional

    technologies (knitting, weaving, etc.) to more recent ones (like composites

    or nonwoven-based technologies).

    Growth in Europe is mainly driven by two technologies:

    Nonwoven with a growth rate of 60% over the past decade. Composites with a growth rate of 75% over the past decade.

    And dont forget the combination with high-tech finishing processes!

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    18

    EU sector of technical textiles

    obtained by finishing processes

    (coating, laminating) is a highly

    technical, very competitive market

    and in a constant growth.

    For example, in 2011, turnover of

    laminating EU companies was

    around 8.000M (nearly 8% of these companies in the EU were Spanish).

    Demand distribution of coated / laminated

    technical fabrics at European level, 2011 (Detrell

    A. The European Coating and Laminating Sector.

    TCL2012).

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    19

    In Europe, hotmelt technology can

    be currently considered as a mature

    technology, which started to come

    into use in the early 2000s, with the

    development of new laminating

    systems, new membranes and new

    adhesives.

    Nevertheless, it did take about 10

    years to reach its true potential and

    the leading technical finishing

    companies have invested in new

    laminating lines (or they are currently

    incorporating it into their production

    processes).

    Sales evolution (data in M metres) of waterproof-

    breathable textile articles in the EU (Detrell A. The

    European Coating and Laminating Sector.

    TCL2012).

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    20

    More technical properties, more added-value, more end-uses for your

    nonwovens with finishing processes:

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    PADDING KNIFE COATING DYEING PRINTING

    EXTRUSION COATING METALLIZATION SPUTTERING

    HOTMELT LAMINATION PLASMA TREATMENT THERMOBONDING

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    21

    And the main global opportunities for new nonwoven-based applications

    are:

    Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    Growing needs of textile solutions from the end-users: comfort and

    monitoring solutions for active life style, CO2 emission reduction in

    transport (through reduced weight) and building (through thermal

    insulation), improvement of medical technology (implants, health

    monitoring), etc.

    Close cooperation producers + customers in order to address very specific needs (tailor-made solutions) and demand-driven innovation.

    Growing demand for recyclability and low weight (e.g. replacement of

    foam by nonwovens, or replacing metallic parts by composite materials).

    Quick growth of technical textile consumption per capita worldwide

    and especially in China, India and Brazil. Emerging markets.

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    22 Infoday. April 22nd, 2015. Gaziantep (Turkey)

    Nonwovens for technical

    applications

    Raw materials consumption. By applying the right forming and bonding

    techniques, water consumption is drastically reduced. Also, modern

    wetlaid or spunlaced production lines are recycling almost all of the

    water consumed in a closed loop. Furthermore, thanks to ongoing

    machine improvements, weights are possible down to 10 grams per square

    meter, which means reduced fiber consumption.

    Biodegradable fibers. Traditional disposables, like hygiene and medical

    products, are in real trouble because of tighter environmental laws.

    There soon will be no more landfills to handle used disposables. The

    industry is challenged: PLA, cellulose-based (Tencel / Lyocell) fibers

    and flushability performance (disintegration of towels or wet wipes when

    are flushed down the toilet) required.

  • 3. MARKET TRENDS FOR TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF NWs

    23

    Opportunities in new products and applications for different sectors:

    Geotextiles...

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