Nitrification of Complex Effluent

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  • LEVAPOR porous, adsorbing carrier for bioprocess improvementDr. Imre Pascik LEVAPOR /Biofilm Tech GmbHwww. Leverkusen, Germany

  • About us Innovative Organization Fixed Film Based Process Solutions Complex Effluent, Municipal Wastewater, Polluted Gas CEO Dr. Imre Pascik 40 years of experience with Bayer AG, Environmental Bio Technology Centre, Leverkusen

  • About us Development of innovative processes Two Step nitrification of high Ammonia containing effluents Landfill Leachate Treatment Bayer Tower Biology (Otto Award) Degradation of toxic effluents using Anaerobic-Aerobic Processes

  • What We do Problem analysis for the treatment of high strength industrial and municipal wastewater treatment Define treatment goals and conceptual process design Development of optimal process and design parameters with pilot testsManufacturing of high performance tailor made bio carriers for the application Process Start up

  • Industries We serve Chemicals and PharmaceuticalsPetrochemicals and Refineries Pulp and Paper Coal Conversion : coke plant, coal gasification, pyrolysisTextile finishing and Leather manufacturers Municipal Wastewater Treatment Special effluents like land fill leachate and sludge processing unit

  • Biological Removal of nitrogen NITRIFICATION is a biological oxidation followed by biological reduction, DENITRIFICATIONNH4+ +1.5 O2 Nitrosomonas NO2- + 2 H+ + H2O ammonium pH-value decreases ! NO2- + 0.5 O2 Nitrobacter NO3-

    NITRIFICATION = NH4+ bio-oxidation NO3-

  • Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter Attributes of nitrifying bacteria

    slow growth: generation time: 12 to 24 hrs low cell yield: 3 % from N-oxidized weak flocculation high sensitivity to certain chemicals






  • FACTORS AFFECTING NITRIFICATIONWASTE WATER MATRIX Organic pollutants - structure,concentr.,effect (tensides) COD: NH4N - ratio Inorganic pollutants-salinity, Ca2+,heavy metals(Cd,Cu) INHIBITORS - effect (reversible, irrevers.), concentration QUALITY FLUCTUATIONS BIOMASS Bioactivity - (gNoxidized /kgBiomass*day) Stability - resistance to inhibiting influences PROCESS PARAMETERS Food : Mass-Ratio (gN/kgBiomass*day) C/N - ratio Temperature, pH, dissolved O2

  • Types of upsets Biomass wash-outDisturbed processInhibited processPhenomena biomass doesnt settle, cant be separated and leaves the reactor Lower degree of nitrification,slower processTotal inhibitionBioactivity in the reactor Unchanged, but lower efficiency due to lower MLVSS in the reactor Lower, but able to recovery after elimination of the causesNo bioactivity

    Possible reasons- biomass morphology: bulking or small flocs

    - high salinity

    - deficit in nutrients

    -overloaded separation Waste water matrix: structure and concentration of organic and inorganic pollutants Fluctuations: quality and quantity of pollutants Remarkable changes of process para- meters: pH, temperature

    * plant operators

  • Type of the upsetPossible measureWeakly flocculating, slowly settling biomass, wash-outAddition of biodegradable organic carbon source- Immobilisation on carrier material *Periodical inhibition by reversible inhibitors - Temporary addition of powdered activated carbon - Addition of nitrifying biomass from external plants *Continuous inhibition by reversible acting inhibitors- Identification and source treatment of the inhibitory effluent stream

    - Adaptation of nitrifying biomass

    - Semi-continuous addition of separately generated nitrifying biomass * Irreversible inhibition by strong inhibitorsNew startup with external biomass- Identification and source treatment of inhibitory effluent streams

  • Bio Film TechnologyBiodegradation of pollutants occurs via teamwork of microorganisms united

    in sludge flocs

    Important result of research :Some important, non-flocculating organisms will be washed out from bioreactor, resulting reduced plant efficiencySolution: Biofilm technologyvia immobilisation, cell growth onsolid surfaces, carriers made ofplastics, sand, glass, etc.

    Target: Synthesis of biocarrier



    1. Adsorbing capacity - binding toxic pollutants

    - fast colonization + bio film - fast start up at high level

    2. Porosity, high inner surface - protection of the biofilm (high biomass content) - high space-time-yields

    3. Fast wetting - homogenous fluidisation

    4. Water binding - mass transport, bioactivity 5. Proper fluidisation - lower energy consumption

  • Our Technology LEVAPOR Bio Carrier First synthesized Bio Carrier Porous, Flexible, Durable PU foam impregnated with surface active pigments like activated carbon Due to variability of foam and pigment type and their ratios, tailor made carriers can be produced with varying properties

  • Our Technology

  • PropertiesHigh Adsorbing Surface 10 to 12 kg of activated carbon per m3 of foam matrixPU foam surface area 2500 m2/m31000-2000 m2/g surface area of activated carbon Extremely high adsorbing surface

    Benefits:Reversible AdsorptionRapid microbial colonization and biofilm formation Temporary adsorption of toxic and inhibitory substances Subsequent biodegradation and thus regeneration of surface

  • Advantages Fixing of weakly flocculating nitrifying biomass on the carrier material Temporary adsorption of reversible inhibitors and their subsequent biodegradation on activated carbon present in the carrier material . Also reducing its toxicity in the bulk liquid and thus stabilizing process in suspended phaseShort process start up and higher performance compared to suspended mass based systems (100 to 300%)Higher process stability against toxic shock loads and fluctuations in reactor conditions Lower Degree of Filling (12 to 15%) Smaller foot print Lower energy consumption for fluidization Lower sludge production Simpler process control

  • ApplicationsNitrification-Denitrification of Petro Chemicals effluent COD removal, Nitrification of Highly toxic Agro Chemicals effluent Nitrification of municipal effluent under cold climateNitrification of Hyper Saline Effluent

  • Agro Chemicals Manufacturing UnitPesticides Manufacturing Agrochemicals industries A Wide variety of agro chemicals manufactured at site due to hectic crop cycle Effluents Containing :Biologically active biocides and often inhibiting raw chemicals , active ingredients and their by products Solvents like methanol, aromates, dicholoromethane, methyl-isobutyl-ketone(MIBK) from the formulations Higher Salinity

  • A typical Effluent Characteristics

    Up to 12,000 mg/lit COD comprising solvents in it Up to 600 mg/lit inhibitory , active ingredients and their by products 500 to 800 mg/lit Total Kjehldahl Nitrogen (TKN) containing mostly Organic-N associated with slowly hydrolysable s-triazine. Up to 1500 mg/lit Sulfates (SO4-) 10,000 to 25,000 mg/lit Salt Concentration as NaCl

  • The Problem Adversely affect the environmentPresence of high amount of biodegradable solvents make wet oxidation processes costly and thus biological degradation would be cost effective alternativeHigher concentrations of inhibitory substances lower the COD removal efficiency of suspended growth only reactorsCOD removal also affected due to high fluctuations of loadSevere nitrification inhibition due to fluctuating COD removal efficiencyAerobic only treatment increases aeration costs and also handling of high amount of toxic sludge

  • The solution MicroAerobic-Anaerobic-Aerobic Provides most diverse microbial consortia responsible for the biodegradation of complex molecular structures. During Anaerobic Step the complex molecules are hydrolysed Much of the COD removed , thus reduce aeration demand Lower sludge production and thus solids handling costs.Presence of inhibitory substances, pH changes, salinity fluctuations cause deflocculation and wash out of microbes Thus, immobilization of microbes on carriers

  • Pilot Testing Proposed Micro Aerobic-Anaerobic-Aerobic Scheme with denitrification Tested for two years at site

  • Pollutant Removal

    Pollutantinfluentconcentrationsremoval %overallin different stepsmg/L%microaerob-+ anaerobicaerobicAromatic solvents1,5-3,0100,090,010,0Methanol930 - 1980100,095,0-100,00-5,0Dichloromethane4,0 - 42,0100,0100,00,0MIBK9,0 -330,0100,076,024,0Amines56,2 - 64,8100,090,0-100,00,0-10,0Triazine derivatives 96,5 - 114,3100,064,235,8Carbamates17,8 - 24,380,072,028,0Herbicides total154,0 - 337,091,57525

  • Biodegradation of Herbicides

    Component 26.10.05 Influent degree of removal, overall% removal