Networking topology

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2. NETWORKING TOPOLOGY Presented to: Madam Mah-e-bushraPresented by: Shafiq-ur-rehman Roll no: 04 BS (Hons) 7th semester Session (2010-2014)The Islamia University of Bahawalpur 2 3. 3 4. Content Networking Topology05Physical topology08Smart art graphic09Ring topology10Diagram of Ring topology11Advantages/disadvantages12Bus Topology13Diagram of Bus Topology14Advantages of Bus topology15Disadvantages of Bus Topology16Star Topology17Diagram of Star topology18Advantages/Disadvantages of Star topology19Tree topology20Mesh Topology21Diagram of Mesh Topology22Advantages/Disadvantages of Mesh Topology 23 Logical Topology24Two types of logical Topology25Reference264 5. AN INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKINGTOPOLOGYNetwork topology is the study of the arrangement or mapping of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a network, especially the physical (real) and logical (virtual) interconnections between nodes A local area network (LAN) is one example of a network that exhibits both a physical topology and a logical topology. Any particular network topology is determined only by the graphical mapping of the configuration of physical and/or logical connections between nodes. LAN Network Topology is, therefore, technically a part of graph theory. 5 6. NETWORKING TOPOLOGY Networking Topology:The way in which the connections are made is called the topology of the network.6 7. The structure of the network is divided into the physical topology and the logical topology.7 8. PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY refers to the configuration of the cables, computers, and other peripherals.8 9. 9 10. RING TOPOLOGY DiagramDescription: Devices are connected from one to another to form a ring shape. Each host is connected to the next and the last node is connected to the first. A data token1 is used to grant permission for each computer to communicate. 10 11. 11 12. Advantages: Easy to install and wire. Because every computer is given equal access to the token, no one computer can monopolize the network. Disadvantages: Requires more cable than a bus topology. If one computer fails it can affect the whole network. It is difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. 12 13. BUS TOPOLOGY DiagramThe bus topology is often used when a network installation is small, simple, or temporary. Description: All hosts are connected to the backbone cable in a linear fashion. 13 14. 14 15. Advantages of the Bus There are several advantages to a bus topology: The bus is simple, reliable in very small networks, easy to use, and easy to understand. The bus requires the least amount of cable to connect the computers together and is therefore less expensive than other cabling arrangements. It is easy to extend a bus. Two cables can be joined into one longer cable with a BNC barrel connector, making a longer cable and allowing more computers to join the network. A repeater can also be used to extend a bus; a repeater boosts the signal and allows it to travel a longer distance. 15 16. Disadvantages of the Bus A bus topology is commonly subject to the following disadvantages: Heavy network traffic can slow a bus considerably. Because any computer can transmit at any time, and computers on most bus networks do not coordinate with each other to reserve times to transmit, a bus network with a lot of computers can spend a lot of its bandwidth (capacity for transmitting information) with the computers interrupting each other instead of communicating. The problem only gets worse as more computers are added to the network. Each barrel connector weakens the electrical signal, and too many may prevent the signal from being correctly received all along the bus. It is difficult to troubleshoot a bus. A cable break or malfunctioning computer anywhere between two computers can cause them not to be able to communicate with each other. A cable break or loose connector will also cause reflections and bring down the whole network, causing all network activity to stop.16 17. STAR TOPOLOGY Diagram In a star topology, all the cables run from the computers to a central location, where they are all connected by a device called a hub. Stars are used in concentrated networks, where the endpoints are directly reachable from a central location; when network expansion is expected; and when the greater reliability of a star topology is needed. Description: All hosts are connected to a single point of concentration. Usually uses a hub3 or switch4 as a center node. Range limits are about 100 meters from the hub Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination. 17 18. 18 19. Advantages: It is easy to modify and add new computers to a star network without disturbing the rest of the network. If one node or workstation (beside the middle node) goes down, the rest of the network will still be functional. The center of a star network is a good place to figure out where the network faults are located. You can use several cable types in the same network if the hub you have can handle multiple cable types. Disadvantages: Requires more cable than a bus topology. If the middle node goes down , then the entire network goes down. It is more expensive than because all cables must be connected to one central point. 19 20. TREE TOPOLOGY Tree topology is a combination of Bus and Star topology.This particular type of network topology is based on a hierarchy of nodes. The highest level of any tree network consists of a single, 'root' node, this node connected either a single (or, more commonly, multiple) node(s) in the level below by (a) point-to-point link(s). These lower level nodes are also connected to a single or multiple nodes in the next level down. Tree networks are not constrained to any number of levels, but as tree networks are a variant of the bus network topology, they are prone to crippling network failures should a connection in a higher level of nodes fail/suffer damage. Each node in the network has a specific, fixed number of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy, this number referred to as the 'branching factor' of the tree. This tree has individual peripheral nodes. 20 21. MESH Diagram The mesh topology is distinguished by having redundant links between devices. A true mesh configuration has a link between each device in the network. As you can imagine, this gets unmanageable beyond a very small number of devices. Most mesh topology networks are not true mesh networks. Description: Each host is connected to all the other hosts.21 22. 22 23. Advantages: Increased reliability since there are multiple paths for each node to take. Increased speed since shortcuts have been created by add more cables/links. Disadvantages: The cost of cabling all the hosts together is expensive and time consuming. 23 24. LOGICAL TOPOLOGY refers to the method for passing information between workstations.24 25. TWO TYPES OF LOGICAL TOPOLOGIES: Broadcast - This type of logical topology works on a first come, first serve basis. The first in line gets to be the first to be sent. Each host sends its data to all other hosts. The Ethernet is a good example of a broadcast logical topology. Token Passing - This type of logical topology controls access by passing a token1. Each host can only send data when it has the token1. 25 26. REFERENCE 1)Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA 1 and 2 Lab Companion, Revised Third Edition. Cisco Press, 2005. ISBN: 158731498.2)Computer in business P.62-653)Network Topology: Home PC: logy.html26 27. 27 28. 28 29. 29