Network topology And Its Types

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Network topology

Network TopologyMade by - Gaurav Yadav Class - X - D

Network TopologyNetwork topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology refers to the placement of the network's various components, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology shows how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design

Types Of Network Topology

Types Of Physical TopologyBus TopologyRing TopologyStar TopologyTree TopologyMesh Topology

Bus TopologyIn local area networks where bus topology is used, each node is connected to a single cable. Each computer or server is connected to the single bus cable. A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the intended recipient. If the machine address does not match the intended address for the data, the machine ignores the data. Alternatively, if the data matches the machine address, the data is accepted. Since the bus topology consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement. Terminators stop signals after reaching end of wire

Advantages-

Relatively inexpensive to implementEasy to install and use.Cables are less used then star or ring topology.

Disadvantages-

Disorder in any node may lead to failure of entire data transmission.It is difficult to add a new node to the structure.

Bus Topology

Star topology In local area networks with a star topology, each network host is connected to a central hub with a point-to-point connection. In Star topology every node (computer workstation or any other peripheral) is connected to central node called hub or switch. The switch is the server and the peripherals are the clients. The network does not necessarily have to resemble a star to be classified as a star network, but all of the nodes on the network must be connected to one central device. All traffic that traverses the network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a signal repeater. The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement.

Advantages-An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes.Good option for modern networksLow startup costsEasy to manageOffers opportunities for expansionMost popular topology in use; wide variety of equipment available

Disadvantages-Hub is a single point of failureRequires more cable than the bus

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Star Topology

Ring TopologyA network topology that is set up in a circular fashion in which data travels around the ring in one direction and each device on the ring acts as a repeater to keep the signal strong as it travels. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. The network is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring. When a device sends data, it must travel through each device on the ring until it reaches its destination. Every node is a critical link.

Advantages-Easier to manage; easier to locate a defective node or cable problemHandles high-volume network trafficEnables reliable communication

Disadvantage-ExpensiveRequires more cable and network equipment at the startNot used as widely as bus topologyFewer equipment options

Ring Topology

Tree TopologyThis particular type of network topology is based on a hierarchy of nodes. The highest level of any tree network consists of a single, 'root' node, this node connected either a single (or, more commonly, multiple) node(s) in the level below by (a) point-to-point link(s). These lower level nodes are also connected to a single or multiple nodes in the next level down. Each node in the network has a specific, fixed number of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy, this number referred to as the 'branching factor' of the tree

Advantages It is scalable. Secondary nodes allow more devices to be connected to a central node. Point to point connection of devices. Having different levels of the network makes it more manageable hence easier fault identification and isolation.

Disadvantages-Maintenance of the network may be an issue when the network spans a great area.Since it is a variation of bus topology, if the backbone fails, the entire network is crippled.

Tree Topology

Mesh topologyIt is also known as graph topology. In this topology each node is connected in another node Directly". So there is a mesh in the network as there are so many wires that are connected to each and every node.Fully Connected- A fully connected network is a communication network in which each of the nodes is connected to each other. A fully connected network doesn't need to use switching nor broadcasting.Partially Connected- The type of network topology in which some of the nodes of the network are connected to more than one other node in the network with a point-to-point link.

Fully Connected Mesh Topology

Partially Connected Mesh Topology

Network Operating System Network operating systems co-ordinate the activities of multiple computers across a networkThe two major types of network OS are:Peer-to-peerClient/server

Peer To Peer Network OSIn peer to peer network OS, there is no file server or central management source; all computers are considered equalPeer to peer networks are design primarily for small to medium LANSAppleShare and Windows for Workgroups are examples of programs that can function as peer to peer

Client/Server Network OSClient/server network OS centralize functions and applications in one or more dedicated file servers.The file server provides access to resources and provides security.Novel Netware and Windows NT Server are examples of client/server network operating systems.

M.C.QWhich is the simplest topology to design and implement?(a)Star topology (b)Ring topologyAns. (a)Star topology

What is the device used to connect different computer in star topology ?(a)Hub (b)ServerAns. (a)Hub

Mesh topology is of _______ types.(a)three (b)twoAns. (b)two

In case of failure of one node in ring topology the whole system crashes(a)True (b)FalseAns. (b)False

In ______topology each node is connected to a single cable?(a)Bus (b)RingAns.(a)Bus

There are ______ Physical Topologies.(a)Four (b)FiveAns. (b) Five

Computer which asks for services are ?(a)Client (b)ProvidersAns. (a)Client

Computer which provide services to the client is called __________a)Client (b)Service ProvidersAns. (b)Service Provider

If the hub(in star topology) fails the network also experience a failure.(a)True (b)FalseAns. (a)True

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