Marine Mammal Conservation-Caribbean Context

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Regional considerations for marine mammal conservation in the Caribbean

Text of Marine Mammal Conservation-Caribbean Context

  • 1. Marine Mammal Conservationin the Caribbean Regional context Paul Hoetjes Dept. of Environment & Nature Conservation Netherlands Antilles

2. Wider Caribbean

  • Political context
  • Regional issues
  • Regional/international instruments
  • Conservation activities
  • Socio-political considerations
  • Recommendations

3. Political context

  • 13 island nations
  • 12 continental nations
  • 13 territories (UK, France, Netherlands, US)
  • 38 political unities

4. political context (2)

  • Island Nations
  • Antigua & Barbuda
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Cuba
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Grenada
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • St. Kitts & Nevis
  • St. Lucia
  • St. Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Continental Nations
  • Belize
  • Colombia
  • Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Honduras
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Surinam
  • US
  • Venezuela

Territories

  • Aruba
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Anguilla
  • Cayman Islands
  • Monserrat
  • Turks & Caicos Islands
  • British Virgin Islands
  • French Guyana
  • Guadeloupe
  • St. Martin St. Barth
  • Martinique
  • Puerto Rico
  • US Virgin Islands

5. Political context (3)

  • Three languages
    • English, Spanish, French (and Dutch)
  • Two law systems
    • Common Law (English speaking countries)
    • Civil Law (everyone else)
  • Wealthy and poor
  • Nevertheless, active regional cooperation

6. Regional issues

  • One of the busiest shipping areas in the world
    • Oil transshipment
    • Cruise tourism
    • General cargo
  • Tourism economicmainstay
  • Biodiversity hotspo t

7. Regional issues

  • Relatively little known about Caribbean Cetaceans
  • Still targeted hunt in a few islands
  • Increasing popularity of captive facilities
  • Increasing marine mammalwatching industry
  • High ship traffic volume with unknown effects
    • (noise) pollution
    • Collisions
  • Pollution

8. Regional/international instruments

  • UNEP-CEP & Cartagena Convention
    • LBS Protocol(Land-Based Sources ofMarine Pollution)
    • SPAW Protocol (Specially Protected Areas & Wildlife)
  • Western Hemisphere Migratory Species Initiative (WHMSI)
  • Convention on Migratory Species
  • International Whaling Commission (IWC)
  • Marpol Annex I-V
    • Caribbean Special Area need for implementation

9. Regional/international instruments (2)

  • SPAW Protocol
  • (Specially Protected Areas & Wildlife)
  • 14 member countries
  • Total protection and recovery allcetaceans(Annex 2)
  • Protection of areas critical to endangered species
  • Protected Area guidelinesPA network
  • Marine Mammal Action Plan (MMAP)

10. Regional/international instruments (3)

  • Few member states in Caribbean (5)
  • Protection and recoveryof endangered species (appendix I)
  • Cooperation for protection and m anagement of species(appendix II)
  • Caribbean cetaceansprotected under SPAW
  • MoU with SPAW

11. Regional/international instruments (4)

  • Western Hemisphere MigratorySpecies Initiative (WHMSI)
  • Supported by OAS
  • Cooperation for the conservation of migratory species of the Americas
  • Strengthening communication and cooperation
  • Open, informal partnership, not a legal instrument

12. marine mammal conservation activities

  • MMAP
  • Stranding response trainingworkshops and strandingnetwork
  • Manatee reintroduction (Fr)
  • MPA network
    • French Whale sanctuary
    • Silver Bank sister sanctuary(Dom. Rep.-US)
  • Marine Mammal expert network

13. Socio-political considerations

  • Extractive use (consumption or live capture) is a sensitive issue
  • (perceived) tourism competitiveness is a driving force
  • SIDS: lack of capacity,lack ofcapacity,lack of capacity(people, money, facilities )

14. Recommendations

  • Integrate with regional instruments, MMAP
  • Need for sustainability incorporate economic and social aspects
  • Communicateresults

15. Thank you

  • Photographs courtesy ofGeorge Kieffer, Dolphin Academy Curaao