Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods: compatible?

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  • 1. Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods: compatible?Robert Nasi CIFOR GBF 16, The Hague, 5-7/04/02

2. There are some circumstances under which forest management is unlikely to yield either sustainable livelihoods or sustainable biodiversity conservation (e.g.too little forest areas, too many dependant people) There are also conditions which favor both socioeconomic returns and conservation (e.g. forests rich in valuable timber or multiple resources, well-organized communities, and diversified resource use) 3. n reha bi lit at ioedendepletsi fic at ionr frontieia l tr us in d e-prin tLand use intensification stages Forest coverEconomic returnCost of BD cons./area 4. Hunger, PovertyYou have to have at least one square meal a day to be an environmentalist(Borlaug) 5. Non-missing Markets The illegal trade in endangered species is worth $5,000,000,000 / year A kg of Taxol (Taxus brevifolia): $11,900,000 A breeding pair of Lears Macaw: $260,000 Two Black Rhinoceros horns: $50,000 A kg of dry Bear gall bladder: $7,000 A kg of Tiger bones: $3,000 One Giant Panda pelt = a Chinese peasants lifetime earnings 6. Harnessing Butterfly Biodiversity for Improving Livelihoods and Forest Conservation The Kipepeo project: To change local attitudes by enabling the forest adjacent community to get cash incomes from rearing forest butterflies for export to the live butterfly exhibit industry in Europe and America. Started in 1994 with $50,000 from GEF small grant program In 1999, butterfly sales account for 87% of all recorded revenues for the forest, with 10% coming from Forest Department licenses, fines and royalties for timber products and 2% from tourism. Replicable (e.g. Costa Rica currently exports around $1 million worth of live butterflies a year) Sustainable (Butterfly populations seem not affected but monitoring continues...) 7. Payment of Environmental Services in Costa Rica Land use typeTotal amount paidover a five year period (US$ ha-1)Annual payments as percentage of total for years 1-51234Commitment period (years)5Reforestation56550201510515Natural Forest Management34450201010101022120202020205Forest Preservation or Regeneration 8. The logging case... The use of tropical forests as a source of timber is a contentious and emotive issue (Bawa and Seidler 1998; Bowles et al. 1998; Rice et al. 1997, 1998; Struhsaker 1997; Salafsky et al. 1998; Cannon et al. 1998; Pearce et al. 1999; Putz et al. 2000b; Lugo 1999).However, for better or for worse, timber harvesting in many tropical forests looks set to continue (ITTO 1993, Global Forest Watch 2000) and making the best of this is a necessity. 9. Logging and livelihoods The good, the bad and the worse co-exist (CBFM to large scale illegal logging or poaching) Raise the issue of local vs. global stakeholders: who counts more? (forest dependent people vs. global conservation lobby) Local and national interests might conflict: who benefit from forest income? (Only communities in the forest or the whole Nation) 10. Conclusions? Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods can be compatible But: There is no one-size-fits-all solution An integrated landscape approach is essential Relevant stakeholders must no feel like castaways Principles should be translated into actionsAs well as probably a thousand of additional useful recommendations that I forgot....