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Base Station Virtualization: Advantages and Challenges Network Technology Strategy Department Alberto Boaventura 2015-04-05 April, 7-9th 2015

LTE LATAM 2015 - Base Station Virtualization: Advantages and Challenges

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  • Base Station Virtualization: Advantages and Challenges

    Network Technology Strategy Department Alberto Boaventura

    2015-04-05

    April, 7-9th 2015

  • 1 2

    3

    We have approximately 330,000 kilometers of fiber optic cable installed, which makes our network the

    largest telecommunications backbone in Brazil.

    Our mobile network, with more than 25,000 outdoor stations and almost 1 million of Wi-Fi hotspot, covers areas where approximately 88.5% of the

    population lives and works.

    Currently we provide ADSL and VDSL services in 4703 of 5570 Brazilian cities. We are upgrading with

    fiber optic-based GPON to support VDSL2 and facilitate the provision of our TV services. Already we offer services up to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps for

    residential and enterprise customers respectively.

    Who we are ...

    40,3% 27,1% 32,6%

    54,7%

    23,1% 21,6%

    Region 1 Region 2 Region 3

    GDP Population

    After privatization, the Brazilian market has been split in 3 Regions. Oi is fixed incumbent operator in Region 1 & 2, but has presence in all Brazilian regions.

    Where we are ...

    Brazil is the largest country in Latin America with 8.5 million of km2. The GDP is 2.246 Trillion of USD and Population is 203 million of inhabitants.

    16 States 10 States 1 State

    174 202,9

    242,2 261,8 271,1

    41,5 42 43 44,3 44,8

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

    Mobile Accesses Fixed Accesses

    Millions

    Source: Teleco/2014

  • Changes and

    Source: Ericsson 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

    1000

    1800

    Voice

    Data

    Tota

    l (U

    L+D

    L) t

    raff

    ic (

    Pe

    taB

    yte

    s)

    Source: Cisco VNI 2012

    12

    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    6

    Mobile File Sharing

    Mobile M2M

    Mobile Web/Data

    Mobile Video

    Exab

    yte

    s p

    er

    mo

    nth

    In 2016, Social Newtorking will be second highest penetrated consumer mobile service

    with 2, 4 billion users 53% of consumer mobile users - Cisco 2012

    0,0

    0,5

    1,0

    1,5

    2,0

    2,5

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014*

    MBB DevelopingMBB DevelopedFBB DevelopingFBB Developed

    Wo

    rld

    Bro

    adb

    and

    Su

    bsc

    rip

    tio

    ns

    (Bill

    ion

    s)

    Source: ITU/ICT/MIS 2014

    132 89 113 147

    117 161 146 103

    181 170 149 151

    110 59 66 43

    540 min 479 min 474 min 444 min

    Indonesia China Brazil USA

    TV Laptop+PC Smartphone Tablet

    Source: KPCB & Milward Brown 2014 Dai

    ly D

    istr

    . Of

    Scre

    en

    Min

    ute

    s

    13 kbps 50 kbps

    125

    kbps

    200

    kbps

    684

    kbps

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

    Source: Cisco VNI (2010/2011/2012/2013)

    242%

    2009 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

    10

    6

    LTE UMTS/HSPA GSM;EDGE TD-SCDMA CDMA Other

    Wo

    rld

    Mo

    bile

    Su

    b. (

    Bill

    ion

    s)

    Source: Ericsson 2012

    Lati

    n A

    me

    rica

    Ave

    rage

    Th

    rou

    ghp

    ut

    VIDEO BECOMES SOCIAL DATA BECOMES VIDEO MOBILE BECOMES DATA TELECOM BECOMES MOBILE

    On the market demand in dense urban areas during

    business hours, it has been calculated that 800

    Mbps/km2 are required (BuNGee and Artists4G

    Projects).

    The Convention Industry Council Manual guidelines

    recommend 10 square feet per person. It represents 1

    Million persons per km2. If all persons upload video

    with 64 kbps, it represents 64 Gbps/km2!

    Whatsapp: Over 50bn messages every day.

    Facebook: 1 billion of active users and a half of them use mobile access (488 million users) regularly.

    Twitter: 50% users are using the social network via mobile.

    YouTube: more than of users use in Mobile Device

    Instagram: The average Instagram mobile user spent two times comparing tp Twitter.

    By 2018 there will be nearly 1.4

    mobile devices per capita. There

    will be over 10 billion mobile-

    connected devices by 2018,

    including machine-to-machine

    (M2M) modulesexceeding the worlds population at that time (7.6 billion) CISCO VNI 2014

    VIDEO & SOCIAL BECOME CROWD TRAFFIC INTERNET OF EVERYTHING TRAFFIC & REVENUE DECOUPLING

    Voice Centric

    Data Centric

    Traffic

    Reveue

  • LTE Advanced

    ITU-R M.2034 Spectral Efficiency

    DL 15 bits/Hz UL 6.75 bits/Hz

    Latency User Plane < 10 ms Control Plane < 100 ms

    Bandwidth ITU-R M.2034 40 MHz ITU-R M.1645 100 MHz

    ADVANCED

    Coverage C

    apac

    ity

    SmallCells

    High order MIMO Carrier Aggregation

    Hetnet/CoMP

    LTE

    LTE A

    3GPP TR 36.913

    3GPP Release 8

    3GPP Release 10

    RELEASE 8/9 RELEASE 10/11 RELEASE 12/13

    20 MHz OFDM SC-FDMA DL 4x4 MIMO SON, HeNB

    Carrier Aggregation UL 4x4 MIMO DL/UL CoMP HetNet (x4.33) MU-MIMO (x1.14)

    Small Cells Enh. CoMP Enh. FD-MIMO (x3.53) DiverseTraffic Support

    LTE Roadmap

    Carrier Aggregation Intra & Inter Band

    Band X

    Band y

    Multihop Relay

    Multihop Relay

    Smallcells Heterogeneous Network

    Colaboration MIMO (CoMP) e HetNet

    High Order DL-MIMO & Advanced UL-MIMO

    C-plane (RRC)

    Phantom Celll

    Macro Cell F1

    F2

    F2>F1

    U-plane

    D2D

    New Architecture

  • METIS PROJECT PREMISES (SOURCE: ETSI/ERICSSON) METIS: 29 PARTNERS

    5G Vision and Timeframe

    ITU-Rs docs paving way to 5G:

    IMT.VISION (Deadline July 2015) - Title: Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond

    Objective: Defining the framework and overall objectives of IMT for 2020 and beyond to drive the future developments for IMT

    IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS (Deadline Oct. 2014)

    To provide a view of future IMT technology aspects 2015-2020 and beyond and to provide information on trends of future IMT technology aspects

    EU (Nov 2012)

    China (Fev2013)

    Korea (Jun 2013)

    Japo (Out 2013)

    2020 and Beyond Adhoc

    Exploratory Research Pre-standardization Standardization activities Trials and Commercialization

    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

    WRC15 WRC12 WRC19

    Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society

  • 5G Potential Technologies

    1=0

    1=45

    30

    210

    60

    240

    90

    270

    120

    300

    150

    330

    180

    ...

    p1

    p2

    pN

    Native M2M support A massive number of connected devices

    with low throughput; Low latency Low power and battery consumption

    hnm

    h21 h12

    h11

    Higher MIMO order: 8X8 or more System capacity increases in fucntion of

    number of antennas

    Spatial-temporal modulation schemes SINR optimization Beamforming

    Enables systems that illuminate and at the same time provide broadband wireless data connectivity

    Transmitters: Uses off-the-shelf white light emitting diodes (LEDs) used for solid-state lighting (SSL);

    Receivers: Off-the-shelf p-intrinsic-n (PIN) photodiodes (PDs) or aval anche photo-diodes (APDs)

    C-plane (RRC)

    Phantom Celll

    Macro Cell

    F1 F2

    F2>F1

    U-plane

    D2D

    Phantom Cell based architecture Control Plane uses macro network User Plane is Device to Device (D2D) in

    another frequency such as mm-Wave and high order modulation (256 QAM).

    Net

    Radio

    Core

    Cache

    Access Network Caching Network Virtualization Function Cloud-RAN Dynamic and Elastic Network

    5G Non-Orthogonal Waveforms for Asynchronous Signalling (5GNOW)

    Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) : Potential extension to OFDM ;

    Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC): Sustainability fragmented spectra.

    Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) Sparse-Code Multiple Access (SCMA) High modulation constellation

    MASSIVE MIMO SPATIAL MODULATION COGITIVE RADIO NETWORKS VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION

    DEVICE-CENTRIC ARCHITECTURE NATIVE SUPPORT FOR M2M CLOUD NETWORK & CACHE NEW MODULATION SCHEME

    New protocol for shared spectrum rational use

    Mitigate and avoid interference by surrounding radio environment and regulate its transmission accordingly.

    In interference-free CR networks, CR users are allowed to borrow spectrum resources only when licensed users do not use them.

  • ... Challenges

    ITU-R M.2078 projection for the global spectrum requirements in order to accomplish the IMT-2000

    future development, IMT-Advanced, in 2020.

    531 MHz 749 MHz

    971 MHz

    749 MHz

    557 MHz 723 MHz

    997 MHz

    723 MHz

    587 MHz 693 MHz

    1027 MHz

    693 MHz

    Region 1 Region 2 Region 3

    MORE SPECTRUM NEW TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE SPLIT CELL & SITE DENSIFICIATION

    () +

    Smallcells

    Heterogeneous Network

    hnm

    h21 h12

    h11

    Mobile operation needs spectrum below 6 GHz, but there is no enough around world.

    Interference with exiting services: cleanup cost, interference mitigation

    High spectrum cost: The average license cost in new spectrum auctions ranges around 100-700

    million of Reais per 10 MHz FDD block

    Spectrum Refarming

    Spectral Efficiency

    New infrastructure investment

    Technology life cycle and adoption

    Market Scale

    New site legal barriers

    Tax barriers

    New site investment

    Interference control and mitigation

    Backhaul capillarity

    HIGH ORDER MIMO

    Cell Site Densification HIGH ORDER MODULATION

  • Centralized or Distributed Base

    Stations?

  • High Density Traffic

    2013 2014 2015 2016

    2017

    2018

    2019

    2020

    0,0 Mbps/km2

    500,0 Mbps/km2

    1000,0 Mbps/km2

    1500,0 Mbps/km2

    2000,0 Mbps/km2

    0,250 km0,350 km0,450 km0,550 km

    DOWNTOWN: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC

    Coverage Radius

    Capacity 2015

    Capacity 2016

    Capacity 2017

    A +63%

    C

    D

    +61%

    +54%

    B

    Green line represents the system capacity density.

    The capacity associated to coverage grid can capture the demand from 2013 till 2014 Point A;

    However, for 2015 it is needed to increase 63% the number of sites, changing the exiting grid Point B;

    In 2016 and 2017, they require more 61% and 54% more sites respectivelly;

    In that time, SmallCells are more appropriated infrastructure to save CapEx and OpEx;

    TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES AND TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP

    $$$

    $$$

    $$$

    $$$

    $$$

    $$$

    1 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x2600 MHz (10) +1800 MHz (5) +1800 MHz (10) SmallCell

    2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

    Legend Notes: 2600 MHz (10) : Basic Scenario; +1800 MHz (5): Additional 5 MHz using 1800 MHz in Basic Scenario coverage; +1800 (10): Same as above, but using 10 MHz; SmallCell: SmallCell using 2600 MHz with 10 MHz for bandwidth;

    TIMES BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY

    TCO

    A B C

    Indifference between Macro

    1800 & 2600 MHz

    Macro LTE 1800 MHz for

    coverage

    Dual layer Macro LTE 1800

    & 2600 MHz

    181 265 890

    SmallCell 2600 MHz

    X: BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY

    X

    DEMANDS

    DOWNTOWN DEMAND: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC

  • Source: SmallCells Forum

    Indoor Environment

    Frequency under 1 GHz has a good Indoor

    propagation. But lack bandwidth for

    capturing mobile broadband traffic.

    90 MHz 150 MHz 200 MHz

    500 MHz

    13 GHz

    700 MHz 1800 MHz 3500 MHz 5800 MHz

    (LTE-U)

    mmWave

    INDOOR TRAFFIC TRAFFIC DENSITY BUILDING PENETRATION LOSS

    0,0 dB 10,0 dB 20,0 dB

    700 MHz

    900 MHz

    1800 MHz

    2100 MHz

    2600 MHz

    INDOOR LOST PERFORMANCE MACRO SITE DENSITY FOR INDOOR COMPENSATION

    39%

    32%

    14%

    4%

    11%

    In Car

    At Home

    At Work

    Travelling

    Others

    0 bps/Hz

    4 bps/Hz

    8 bps/Hz

    12 bps/Hz

    -130 dBm -110 dBm -90 dBm

    3GPP (LTE) Shannon

    Outdoor Indoor

    -50%

    50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are

    performed in indoor environment;

    Building Penetration Loss varies around 10-20 dB,

    that reduces at minimum of 50% overall performance

    of outdoor macro sites;

    FREQUENCY DILEMMA

    0

    300

    600

    900

    0,25 km0,30 km0,35 km0,40 km0,45 km0,50 km

    Indoor Outdoor

    219%

    High Concentration Traffic

    Low dense data traffic. It is dispersed in coverage area

    Indoor Environment Outdoor Environment

    The indoor traffic density can be thousand times higher

    than outdoor. For instance, in stadium & arenas, the

    number of persons per km2 can reach 1 Million! If all

    persons upload video with 64 kbps, it represents 64

    Gbps/km2

    2600 MHz (10 MHz) Graphs

    Better propagation

    Outdoor Coverage Radius

    Building Penetration Loss varies in each frequency.

    Lowest frequency has better propagation behavior.

    New Radius for increasing capacity

    Ban

    dw

    idth

    Voice Originating Call

    Amount of Bandwidth Mbps/km2

  • Why Centralizing?

    CAPACITY & COVERAGE:

    Centralized RAN acts as huge Base Station and can easily coordinate resources for interference avoiding by using functionalities such as CoMP and e-ICIC. CoMP and e-ICIC can together increase the system capacity in 30 times homogeneous network;

    C-RAN is also suitable for non-uniformly distributed traffic due to the load-balancing capability in the distributed BBU pool. Though the serving RRH changes dynamically according to the movement of UEs, the serving BBU is still in the same BBU pool.

    50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment, and due concentrated traffic , indoor traffic density can represent 10-100 times outdoor environment;

    Centralized RAN can be optimal solution and accordingly to Airvana and it is 69% cheaper than DAS;

    TRANSMISSION & INFRASTRUCTURE:

    Algorithms such as e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter latency requirement below 10 micro seconds. In general IP backhaul transport cannot accomplish this latency level in X2 interface.

    Network Synchronization can be simplified by requiring synchronism in less centralized sites

    Currently almost LTE Cell Site is attended by fiber and DWDM is affordable solution for transport CPRI inside of lambdas.

    Space/Colocation, air conditioning and other site support equipment's power consumption can be largely reduced.

    China Mobile estimates a reduction of 71% of power saving comparing to Distributed Cell Site;

    ROLLOUT, OPERATION & MAINTENANCE :

    Faster system rollout due simpler remote cell site that reduces 1/3 comparing to Distributed RAN.

    Multi-Tenant BBUs are aggregated in a few big rooms, it is much easier for centralized management and operation, saving a lot of the O&M cost associated with the large number of BS sites in a traditional RAN network.

    TCO :

    Accordingly to China Mobile, 15% and 50% of CapEx and OpEx savings respectivelly comparing to Distributed RAN

    Core Net.

    BBU

    TDM

    IP

    BBU

    BBU

    Core Net.

    Fronthaul

    Backhaul IP

    BBU

    BBU

    BBU

    eICIC CoMP

    Distributed RAN Centralized RAN

    Coherent transm. & Non-Coherent transm.

    Instantaneous Cell Selection

    X2

    X2

    ABS Protected Subframe

    Aggressor Cell Victim Cell X2

    Identifies interfered UE

    Requests ABS Configure

    s ABS ABS Info Measurement Subset Info

    Uses ABS and signals Patern

  • Base Station Virtualization

  • Base Station Virtualization & Cloud RAN Architecture

    Fronthaul Interface Hardware

    Backplane

    Backhaul Interface Hardware

    Hardware Poll

    Virtualization Layer (Ex.: Hypervisor/VMM)

    VM BBU 1 VM BBU N Core

    Network

    Cache & Local

    Breakout ...

    O&

    M/C

    on

    tro

    l/O

    rch

    es

    tra

    tor

    Fronthaul: CPRI, OBSAI, ETSI ORI

    Internet

    RRU/ RRH

    Radio Unit

    Network Datacenter

    Only Radio Unit

    Backhaul IP

    RRU/ RRH

    Backhaul

    Core Network

    BBU BBU BBU

    Internet

    RRU/ RRH

    RRU/ RRH

    GbE

    Existing Deployed Topology

    Fronthaul

    Internet

    V-BBUs V-Core

    RRU/ RRH

    RRU/ RRH

    RRU/ RRH

    CPRI/ OBSAI

    Cloud RAN Topology

    DEPLOYMENT PARADIGM CHANGE

    PRINCIPLES AND ADVANTAGES

    ARCHITECTURE

    Network Function Virtualization

    Elastic & liquid Resources

    Operational Flexibility

    Reduces space and power consumption

    Reduces CapEx, OpEx and delivery time

    Software Defined Network

    Creates an abstraction layer for: controlling; faster development ; system service orchestration and overall system evolution;

    Open Development Interface

    Creates an open environment for new development;

    Catalyzes new SON & interference mitigation functionalities support;

  • Cases & ... CENTRALIZED RAN OR SUPER CELLSITE SMALLCELLS VS DAS

    WATERFRONT SIDEWALK COVERAGE WITH PICO/SMALLCELLS VIRTUALIZED RAN SHARING

    BBU

    RRU

    eNB/DAS

    1 Sector

    Limited to the throughput of 1 sector and the air link

    Engineered for coverage

    Satisfies requirements for multi-operator transmission (neutral host)

    BBU 1

    BBU N

    BBU Hotel

    CPRI Limited to the throughput of the air interface and backhaul

    Is a mini Base Station in itself

    Capable to accommodate high density traffic

    Not geared toward neutral host operation

    According to Airvana, Smallcell deployment can be 69% cheaper than DAS;

    SmallCells

    DAS

    Super CellSite

    BBUs

    RRH/RRU Only

    Fronthaul Interface Hardware

    Backplane

    Backhaul Interface Hardware

    Hardware Poll

    Virtualization Layer

    Oper1 (BBU)

    Oper2 (BBU) ...

    O&

    M/O

    rch

    est

    rato

    r

    OperN (BBU)

    Multiple sectors Base Station (or Hotel BBU) extended in their neighborhood through the use of fiber to

    supplement coverage / capacity indoor or outdoor

    Solution to minimize visual impact on coastlines, parks, public squares, monuments, street furniture and so forth.

    Alternative to buried/under ground CellSite: extending sectors from existing base station to cover interested places.

    Complements MOCN RAN Sharing deployment, bringing a new alternative (MORAN Like) for supporting multiple

    operators, technologies and frequencies.

    Internet

    Fronthaul

    ... RRH/RRU

    Only

    Backhaul

    Super CellSite with Pico/SmallCells

    RRH/RRU Only

    BBU N

    BBU 1

    ...

  • ... Concerns

    Transport and Fronthaul

    BBU CPRI OBSAI

    ETSI ORI

    Data

    Control

    Sync

    RRU/RRH

    Transport Media: Typically Optical Link in dedicated lambda

    BBU N

    BBU 2

    BBU 1

    CRAN BBU Hotel

    SmallCells unfolds complexity of capillarity

    246 Mbps 1200 Mbps

    2500 Mbps

    9830 Mbps

    WCDMA (1 Carrier) LTE (MIMO 2x2, 10

    MHz)

    LTE (MIMO 2x2, 20

    MHz)

    WCDMA (1 Carrier, 3

    Sectors) + LTE (MIMO2x2, 20 MHz, 3 sectors)

    High throughput requirement for supporting MIMO and high order of frequency bandwidth.

    Although there are fronthaul standards, but

    each vendor implemented its own flavor.

    STANDARDIZATION:

    There exist two main commercial standards CPRI (Common Public Radio Interfce) and OBSAI (Open Base Station Architecture Initiative), but the supporters implemented their own flavor;

    ETSI has recently introduced new standard for fronthaul technology: Open Radio Interface that promises to support several medias - not only fiber.

    CAPILLARITY:

    SmallCells bring scalability concern to provide connectivity to large number of cell sites with high throughput and low latency;

    However the SmallCells main applications reside in dense/urban and indoor environment where there exist cabling and fiber facilities

    Wireless fronthaul solutions based on Multipoint to Multipoint have high transport capacity by using mmWave or 28 GHz and eventually can support CPRI/OBSAI

    HIGH ORDER THROUGHPUT:

    CPRI/OBSAI requires a huge throughput but compressed versions are commercial, allowing in some cases transport over Ethernet;

    Currently almost LTE Cell Site is attended by fiber and DWDM is affordable solution for transport CPRI inside of lambdas.

    LOW LATENCY:

    CPRI/OBSAI requires low latency 5 micro seconds in total, that introduces limitation of 40 km in terms of distance between BBU and RRU;

    However, algorithms such as e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter requirement than CPRI, and the limitation must be 15 km.

    TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP:

    Although DWDM is more expensive than MPLS-TP, the cost optimization considering CapEx and OpEx can reach 1/3 of Distributed CellSite.

  • ... Concerns

    STANDARDIZATION PERFORMANCE

    Technology and Architecture

    Hardware Resources

    Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs)

    Virtualization Layer

    VNF ...

    NFV

    Man

    agem

    ent

    and

    O

    rch

    estr

    atio

    n

    Compute Storage Network

    NFV Infrastructure Virtual

    Compute Virtual Storage

    Virtual Network

    VNF VNF VNF

    Another challenges of virtualization are: real-time processing algorithm implementation; virtualization of the baseband processing pool; dynamic processing capacity allocation to deal with the dynamic cell load in system; exploitation of virtualized resources on commodity hardware, which does not provide the same real-time characteristics as currently deployed hardware.

    This will introduce an additional computational latency and jitter, which needs to be considered in the protocol design.

    It is an opportunity for new algorithms exploiting a large amount of resources efficiently (e.g., through stronger parallelization) or new Hardware Architecture (such as Intel DPDK).

    In theory, a split for function centralization may happen on each protocol layer or on the interface between each layer.

    However, 3GPP LTE implies certain constraints on timing as well as feedback loops between individual protocol layers. Hence, in a deployment with a constrained backhaul, most of the radio protocol stack and RRM are executed locally, while functions with less stringent requirements such as bearer management and load balancing are placed in centralized platform.

    If a high capacity backhaul is available, a higher degree of centralization is achieved by shifting lower-layer functions (e.g., parts of the physical, PHY, and medium access control, MAC, layers or scheduling) into the centralized platform.

    Source: Intel

    Network Packet Size Server

    Packet Size

    WHAT TO VIRTUALIZE

    RF

    PHY

    MAC

    RRM

    AC/LC

    NM

    RF

    PHY

    MAC

    RRM

    AC/LC

    NM

    How much to centralize

    Executed at RRH

    Centralized Executed

    Centralized Executed

    CRAN/SDR Monolithic

    Executed at BTS

    Middle Range Virtualization

    Source: IEEE Communications Magazine

    In order to use a common HW and Virtual Network functions, standardization is imperative to guarantee interchangeability of elements, functionalities and interfaces;

    NFV ISG formed under ETSI (Nov. 2012), led by network operators with wide industry participation. It defined the architecture for NFV and 9 Use Case, including CRAN.

    However an oldest process is in course through 3GPP process, such as 37 series for SDR/MSR.

    CRAN needs to capture the best practices of these two processes and to have a single movement.

    A Mobile SDN is needed for redefining processes in North/South Bound Interfaces and protocol between Flow Controller and Forward Engine MobileFlow (IEEE Communications Magazine)

  • ... Concerns

    Infrastructure

    POWERING FOR DISTRIBUTED RRH/RRU IN CENTRALIZED RAN BATTERY BACKUP: DISTRIBUTED OR CENTRALIZED?

    VISUAL POLLUTION SITE ACQUISITION

    Li-Ion Battery

    Lead-Acid Battery SmallCells and RRH/RRH can be powered locally. However it is necessary to provide SLA in case of commercial power unavailability;

    The Lead-Acid Battery still requires a large space to install. An alternative is Li-Ion Battery that is becoming affordable solution.

    Lithium ion battery can work at the temperature of 60 normally. The cycle life can reach 5-to Machine room cost The volume and weight of lithium ion battery is 1/3 of 5 10years. that in lead-acid battery with the same capacity, which save the space efficient and without consider the floor weight.

    Electric power cost Lithium ion battery can work at high temperature.Improve the air conditioner temperature in machine room so to save electric power;

    Another advantages: Energy density=> space saving; Safety; High Temperature; Large current; Environmental protection

    With centrilized RAN the site acquisition and collocation contracts must change. New type must be considered in different bases;

    SmallCells deployment are in order of 10-100 times macro sites and their installation can be in different places: train and bus stations; airports; lighting poles; building faade; payphones etc. New types of leases/contracts should be developed.

    In an Informa Telecoms & Media Small Cells Market Status Report, nearly 60% of respondents rated deployment issues and backhaul as the top 2 challenges for outdoor small cells. Lack of access to backhaul and power, environmental issues, and cell placement - including the need to deal with multiple landlords, new types of site owners and zoning issues can delay deployment.

    Some operators fail in SmallCells deployment due they did not account a long checklist: transport and infrastructure facilities; legal and site-acquisition issues

    A Site Certification program removes these barriers, bringing the value-added suppliers with expertise in small cells to make sure metro deployment happens right the first time, with speed, and on a large scale.

    Powering RRH/RRHU centralized/virtaualizaed RAN environment constitutes in one of big challenges;

    Power of Ethernet is a preferable implementation for indoor and short distance outdoor SmallCells;

    However Ethernet has capacity transport limitation and PoE is limited to 30-50 m;

    Another alternative is powered fiber cable system that can offers a reach greater than 10 times the distance of power over Ethernet (POE+) cables.

    Up to 12 Optical Fibers SMF/MMF

    12 AGW or 16 AGW Conductors

    Source: TE Connectivity

    Visual Polution: Due a number of SmallCells, the shape and format may impact in acceptance to install in building and public facilities.

  • What are we doing?

  • Rural Suburban Urban Dense Urban Ultra Dense Urban & Indoor

    Individual satellite access or Satellite Backhaul.

    Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA

    Macro LTE 2600 MHz (Anatel Obligation)

    Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi

    Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz

    densification

    Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi

    Metro Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Public Payphone

    Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz

    densification

    Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi

    Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS

    3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification

    Macro Cell Site LTE 450 MHz or 1800 MHz

    Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA

    Femtocell for 3G indoor coverage & voice offload

    SmallCell to indoor Macro LTE 1800 MHz for traffic

    below 181 Mbps/km2

    Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G

    SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet

    Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone

    Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz

    densification Dual Frequency Layer LTE for load

    balancing or CA

    Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G

    SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet

    Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone

    Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification

    Multi-sector Macro & LTE 2600 MHz densification

    Dual Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA

    Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi (802.11ad) Femtocell for 3G

    Indoor & outdoor SmallCells Cloud RAN & Hetnet

    Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone

    Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification

    High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & LTE 2600 MHz

    densification Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load

    balancing or CA

    Macro Cell Site LTE 450 MHz or 1800 MHz

    Wi-Fi 802.11af (TVWS) M2M Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi

    3G HSPA Femtocell for 3G indoor coverage &

    voice offload SmallCell to indoor

    Macro LTE 1800 MHz for traffic below 181 Mbps/km2

    Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G

    SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet

    Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone

    Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA

    Res., Enter. & Corp. Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ax -HEW)

    Wi-Fi Public Payphone Cloud RAN & HetNet

    High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load

    balancing or CA

    Res., Enter. & Corp. Wi-Fi (802.11ad), SmallCell LTE-U (Supp. DL)

    Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ax -HEW) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Cloud RAN & HetNet

    High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & Multiple Frequency

    Layer LTE for load balancing or CA

    Coverage & Capacity Strategy Example

    Short Term

    Mid Term

    Long Term

    Macro

  • Base Station Virtualization in Phases

    CLOUD RAN HETNET CENTRALIZED RAN MULTI STANDARD RAN

    Multi-sector BBU or BBU Hotel

    Overall TCO (CapEx+OpEx) saving of New Cell Site

    Network elasticity based on resource pooled in a single BBU

    Network synchronization simplification

    Fronthaul Rollout

    Vendor consolidation

    MSR and SDR deployment

    2G+3G+4G in single BBU

    CellSite Modernization

    IP Backhauling

    Lifecycle Management Optimization

    SmallCell Rollout

    Capacity improvement by using CoMP, eICIC, CA etc.

    Taking advantage of LTE-A & B (Rel.11 and Rel.12)

    Baseband pooled across BBU

    Using General Purpose HW

    EPC and Cloud RAN in a same Network Datacenter

    Core Net.

    2G

    3G

    4G

    2G

    3G

    4G

    2G

    3G

    4G

    TDM

    IP

    Core Net.

    2G +3G+4G

    TDM

    IP

    2G +3G+4G

    2G +3G+4G

    Core Net.

    BBU

    TDM

    IP

    BBU

    BBU

    Core Net.

    BBU

    Fronthaul

    Backhaul IP

    BBU

    BBU

    Core Net.

    BBU

    Fronthaul

    Backhaul IP

    BBU

    BBU

    Core Net.

    Fronthaul

    Backhaul IP

    BBU

    BBU

    BBU

    Core Net.

    Fronthaul

    Backhaul IP

    BBU

    BBU

    BBU

    Fronthaul

    Backhaul IP

    SBI/Fronthaul

    NBI/Internet

    Hardware Poll

    Virtualization Layer

    BB

    U1

    ...

    O&

    M/O

    rch

    est

    rato

    r

    BB

    U2

    BB

    Un

    EPC

    IMS

    MTA

    S

  • Alberto Boaventura [email protected] +55 21 98875 4998

    GRACIAS!

    THANKS!

    OBRIGADO!