64
A SEMINAR REPORT ON “CORE i7 PROCESSORS” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Engineering. ACADEMIC SESSION 2012-13 Submitted To : Submitted By : Mr. Andleeb Hussain (HOD Deptt. of Computer Engineering) Anagha Vijayvargia (09EMHCS006)

Intel Core i7

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: Intel Core i7

A

SEMINAR REPORT

ON

“CORE i7 PROCESSORS”

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the

Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Engineering.

ACADEMIC SESSION 2012-13

Submitted To : Submitted By :

Mr. Andleeb Hussain

(HOD Deptt. of Computer Engineering)

Anagha Vijayvargia

(09EMHCS006)

MAHARISHI ARVIND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

KOTA (RAJ.)

(Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota)

Page 2: Intel Core i7

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Anagha Vijayvargia student of Maharishi Arvind International

Institute of Technology, Kota pursuing B.Tech in Computer Engineering has presented a

Seminar on CORE i7 PROCESSORS the topic allotted to him under the Seminar Lab.

He has presented a seminar on CORE i7 PROCESSORS and this report is approved for

submission.

Place : Kota

Date :

Mr. Ankur Agrawal

(Lecturer, Computer Engineering)

Mr. Andleeb Hussain

(HOD of Computer Engineering)

Page 3: Intel Core i7

PREFACE

The Intel Core i7 processor is the latest in cutting edge processor with fastest, intelligent,

multi core technology for the desktop PC.

Intel Core i7 processor delivers four complete execution cores within a single processor,

delivering unprecedented performance and responsiveness in multi-threaded and multi-

tasking business and home use environments.

More instructions can be carried out per clock cycle, shorter and wider pipelines execute

commands more quickly, and improved bus lanes move data throughout the system faster.

Their performance is almost always higher, which is especially evident in case of multi-

threaded load and their power consumption is comparable with that of their predecessors.

Over clocking the core i7 processors also seems to be easier. Servers will also likely benefit

greatly from using an i7 - the memory bandwidth is simply insane. Core i7 is first processor

using Nehalem Micro-architecture, with faster, intelligent, multi-core technology that applies

processing power where it's needed most, new Intel Core i7 processors deliver an incredible

breakthrough in PC performance. They are the best desktop processor family on the planet. It

is the combination of Intel Turbo Boost technology and Intel Hyper-Threading technology,

which maximizes performance to match our workload.

Page 4: Intel Core i7

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to the Head of Department,

Computer Engineering of Maharishi Arvind International Institute of Technology, Kota.

Mr. Andleeb Hussain who has provided this opportunity to me to present a seminar on

CORE i7 PROCESSORS.

Further I am grateful to Mr. Ankur Agrawal, for his precious guidance and support in

preparation of this seminar report.

Anagha Vijayvargia

( 09EMHCS006 )

Page 5: Intel Core i7

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction..........................................................................................................1

1.1. What is Processor ?.....................................................................................................1

1.2. Central Processing Unit...............................................................................................1

Chapter 2. INTEL..................................................................................................................4

Chapter 3. Intel Core..............................................................................................................6

3.1. Overview.....................................................................................................................6

Chapter 4. Enhanced Pentium M based.................................................................................8

4.1. Core Duo.....................................................................................................................8

4.2. Core Solo.....................................................................................................................9

Chapter 5. 64-Bit Core Microarchitecture Based................................................................10

5.1. Core 2 Solo................................................................................................................10

5.2. Core 2 Duo................................................................................................................11

5.3. Core 2 Quad...............................................................................................................12

5.4. Core 2 Extreme..........................................................................................................13

Chapter 6. Nehalem Microarchitecture Based.....................................................................15

6.1. Core i3.......................................................................................................................15

6.2. Core i5.......................................................................................................................16

6.3. Core i7.......................................................................................................................17

Chapter 7. Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture Based.............................................................20

7.1. Core i3.......................................................................................................................20

7.2. Core i5.......................................................................................................................21

7.3. Core i7.......................................................................................................................22

Chapter 8. INTEL CORE i7................................................................................................25

Chapter 9. Features And Benefits........................................................................................27

9.1. Quad-Core Processor.................................................................................................27

9.2. 8 MB Intel Smart Cache............................................................................................27

9.3. Intel Hyper-Threading Technology...........................................................................27

9.4. Intel 64-bit architecture.............................................................................................27

9.5. Intel Turbo Boost Technology...................................................................................27

9.6. Integrated memory controller....................................................................................28

9.7. Enhanced Intel Speed-Step Technology....................................................................28

Chapter 10. Specifications And Instruction Set.................................................................29

Page 6: Intel Core i7

10.1. Specifications.........................................................................................................29

10.2. Instruction Set........................................................................................................30

Chapter 11. Advantages And Disadvantages.....................................................................31

11.1. Advantages.............................................................................................................31

11.2. Disadvantages........................................................................................................31

Chapter 12. Comparison Between i3, i5 and i7.................................................................32

Chapter 13. Conclusion......................................................................................................34

Refrences..................................................................................................................................35

Page 7: Intel Core i7

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. What is Processor ?

A processor is multipurpose, programmable device that read binary instructions from

memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to that instruction, and

provides results as output.It can be viewed as data processing unit of a computer. It has

computing and decision-making capability.

1.2. Central Processing Unit

A central processing unit (CPU), also referred to as a central processor unit, is the

hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by

performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The

term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. The form, design,

and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their

fundamental operation remains much the same.

In older computers, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. With the invention of

the microprocessor, a CPU could be contained within a single silicon chip. The first

computers to use microprocessors were personal computers and small workstations. Since the

1970s the microprocessor class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other CPU

implementations, to the extent that even mainframe computers use one or more

microprocessors. Modern microprocessors are large scale integrated circuits in packages

typically less than four centimeters square, with hundreds of connecting pins.

A computer can have more than one CPU; this is called multiprocessing. Some

microprocessors can contain multiple CPUs on a single chip; those microprocessors are

called multi-core processors.

Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs

arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CU), which extracts instructions

from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.

Not all computational systems rely on a central processing unit. An array processor or vector

processor has multiple parallel computing elements, with no one unit considered the "center".

In the distributed computing model, problems are solved by a distributed interconnected set

of processors.

7

Page 8: Intel Core i7

1.3. Generation of Processor

In this section we discuss main generations of processor of Intel family.

Intel 80386:

Intel 80836 is the first 32-bit microprocessor incorporating several main frame

computer Features. It has extensive memory management capabilities. Semiconductor

manufacturing process technology used is 1.0µm (micrometer).It has integrated memory

management unit.

Intel 80486:

It is the first Intel microprocessor with internal cache memory. It instruction

pipeline is more sophisticated than that of 80386 specially. Internal data conversion logic for

both 8 bit subsystem and 16-bit subsystem. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology

used is 1.0µm and 0.8µm (micrometer).

Pentium processor:

The Pentium is highly sophisticated compared to 80486. Pentium processor has several new

feature as compared to 80486; they are Superscalar architecture, Power management, 3.3v

operation. Pentium Processor is also abbreviated as Pentium Pro. Semiconductor

manufacturing process technology used is 0.8µm and 0.6µm and 0.35µm (micrometer).

Pentium II processor:

The Pentium II is a Pentium pro with on chip MMX. It has four low power states: Auto halt,

Stop Grant, Sleep and Deep sleep. Available also as a boxed processor along with heat sink.

Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used is 0.35µm and 0.25µm (micrometer).

Pentium III processor:

The dual processing Pentium Xeon processor is now available at speeds upto 1 GHz and

provides best choice for the entry to mid- range servers and workstations Solution. It utilizes

a 133 MHz system bus. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used is 0.25µm

and 0.18µm (micrometer).

Pentium 4 processor: 8

Page 9: Intel Core i7

The Pentium 4 microprocessor is externally superior microprocessor based on The Intel Net

Burst micro-architecture. The Pentium 4 microprocessor provides high performance for high

end applications. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used is 0.18µm and

0.13µm(micrometer)and 90nm and 65nm(nanometer).

Core processor:

Core processor means it having more than one core working simultaneously to complete the

operation within time. It uses the size of manufacture technology 65 nm. It includes dual core

processor and core to duo processor. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used

is 65nm (nanometer).

Core 2 processor:

Core 2 processor uses quad core architecture. It uses the 65nm and 45nm size of core size. As

it is quad core so 4 cores working simultaneously to work faster. Semiconductor

manufacturing process technology used is 65nm (nanometer).

Core i7 processor:

Core i7 processor also uses four core. It is the fastest processor on the planet. Semiconductor

manufacturing process technology used is 45 nm (nanometer).

9

Page 10: Intel Core i7

Chapter 2. INTEL

Intel Corporation is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporation

headquartered in Santa Clara, California. Intel is the world's largest and highest valued

semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. It is the inventor of the x86 series

of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel Corporation,

founded on July 18, 1968, is a portmanteau of Integrated Electronics (the fact that "intel" is

the term for intelligence information was also quite suitable).Intel also

makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash

memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications

and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and

widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines

advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Though Intel

was originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, its "Intel Inside" advertising

campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.

Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the

majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial

microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that

this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new

microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this

period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for

aggressive and sometimes illegal tactics in defense of its market position, particularly

against Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control

over the direction of the PC industry. The 2011 rankings of the world's 100 most valuable

brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the company's brand value at number

58 and in 2012 at number 49.

Intel has also begun research in electrical transmission and generation. Intel has recently

introduced a 3-D transistor that improves performance and energy efficiency. Intel has begun

mass producing this 3-D transistor, named the Tri-Gate transistor, with their 22 nm process,

which is currently used in their 3rd generation core processors initially released on April 29,

2012. In 2011, SpectraWatt Inc., a solar cell spinoff of Intel, filed for bankruptcy under

Chapter 11.

10

Page 11: Intel Core i7

The Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, and

supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Intel Array Building Blocks, Intel

Threading Building Blocks, and Xen.

11

Page 12: Intel Core i7

Chapter 3. Intel Core

Intel Core is a brand name used for various mid-range to high-end consumer and

business microprocessors made by Intel.

In general, processors sold as Core are more powerful variants of the same processors

marketed as entry-level Celeron and Pentium. Similarly, identically or more capable versions

of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation market.

As of 2013 the current lineup of Core processors includes the latest Intel Core i7, Intel Core

i5, and Intel Core i3, and the older Intel Core 2 Solo, Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core 2 Quad,

and Intel Core 2 Extreme lines. Clock speed slowest 1.2 GHZ to fastest 3.5 GHZ (Or 3.9GHZ

via Intel Turbo Boost Technology)

3.1. Overview

Brand

Desktop Laptop

Code-namedCore

sFab Date released

Code-

namedCores Fab Date released

Core Solo Desktop version not available Yonah 1 65 nm January 2006

Core Duo Desktop version not available Yonah 2 65 nm January 2006

Core 2 Solo Desktop version not availableMerom-L

Penryn-L

1

1

65 nm

45 nm

September

2007

May 2008

Core 2 Duo

Conroe

Allendale

Wolfdale

2

2

2

65 nm

65 nm

45 nm

August 2006

January 2007

January 2008

Merom

Penryn

2

2

65 nm

45 nm

July 2006

January 2008

Core 2 QuadKentsfield

Yorkfield

4

4

65 nm

45 nm

January 2007

March 2008Penryn 4 45 nm August 2008

12

Page 13: Intel Core i7

Core 2 Extreme

Conroe XE

Kentsfield XE

Yorkfield XE

2

4

4

65 nm

65 nm

45 nm

July 2006

November 2006

November 2007

Merom XE

Penryn XE

Penryn XE

2

2

4

65 nm

45 nm

45 nm

July 2007

January 2008

August 2008

Core i3

Clarkdale

Sandy Bridge

Ivy Bridge

2

2

2

32 nm

32 nm

22 nm

January 2010

February 2011

September

2012

Arrandale

Sandy

Bridge

Ivy Bridge

2

2

2

32 nm

32 nm

22 nm

January 2010

February 2011

June 2012

Core i5

Lynnfield

Clarkdale

Sandy Bridge

Sandy Bridge

Ivy Bridge

Ivy Bridge

Haswell

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

45 nm

32 nm

32 nm

32 nm

22 nm

22 nm

22 nm

September

2009

January 2010

January 2011

February 2011

April 2012

April 2012

June 2013

Arrandale

Sandy

Bridge

Ivy Bridge

Haswell

Haswell

2

2

2

4

2

32 nm

32 nm

22 nm

22 nm

22 nm

January 2010

February 2011

May 2012

June 2013

June 2013

Core i7

Bloomfield

Lynnfield

Gulftown

Sandy Bridge

Sandy Bridge-

E

Ivy Bridge

Haswell

4

4

6

4

4/6

4

4

45 nm

45 nm

32 nm

32 nm

32 nm

22 nm

22 nm

November 2008

September

2009

July 2010

January 2011

November 2011

April 2012

June 2013

Clarksfield

Arrandale

Sandy

Bridge

Sandy

Bridge

Ivy Bridge

4

2

4

2

2

45 nm

32 nm

32 nm

32 nm

22 nm

September

2009

January 2010

January 2011

February 2011

May 2012

Core i7

Extreme

Edition

Bloomfield

Gulftown

Sandy Bridge-

E

4

6

6

45 nm

32 nm

32 nm

November 2008

March 2010

November2011

Clarksfield

Sandy

Bridge

Ivy Bridge

4

4

4

45 nm

32 nm

22 nm

September

2009

January 2011

May 2012

13

Page 14: Intel Core i7

Chapter 4. Enhanced Pentium M based

The original Core brand refers to Intel's 32-bit mobile dual-core x86 CPUs that derived from

the Pentium M branded processors. The processor family used a more enhanced version of

the Intel P6 microarchitecture. It emerged in parallel with the NetBurst

microarchitecture (Intel P68) of the Pentium 4 brand, and was a precursor of the 64-bit Core

microarchitecture of Core 2 branded CPUs. The Core brand comprised two branches:

the Duo (dual-core) and Solo (Duo with one disabled core, which replaced the Pentium M

brand of single-core mobile processor).

Intel launched the Core brand on January 6, 2006 with the release of the 32-bit Yonah CPU –

Intel's first dual-core mobile (low-power) processor. Its dual-core layout closely resembled

two interconnected Pentium M branded CPUs packaged as a single die (piece) silicon chip

(IC). Hence, the 32-bit microarchitecture of Core branded CPUs – contrary to its name – had

more in common with Pentium M branded CPUs than with the subsequent 64-bit Core

microarchitecture of Core 2 branded CPUs. Despite a major rebranding effort by Intel starting

January 2006, some computers with the Yonah core continued to be marked as Pentium M.

The Core series is also known for being the first Intel processor to be used as the main CPU

for an Apple Macintosh computer. The Core Duo was the CPU for the first generation

MacBook Pro while the Core Solo appeared in Apple's Mac mini line. Core Duo signified the

beginning of Apple's shift to Intel processors across their entire line. Intel began branding the

Yonah core CPUs intended for mainstream mobile computers as Pentium Dual-Core, not to

be confused with the desktop 64-bit Core microarchitecture CPUs also branded as Pentium

Dual-Core.September 2007 and January 4, 2008 marked the discontinuation of a number

of Core branded CPUs including several Core Solo, Core Duo, Celeron and one Core 2 Quad

chip.

1.1. Core Duo

Intel Core Duo (product code 80539) consists of two cores on one die, a 2 MB L2 cache

shared by both cores, and an arbiter bus that controls both L2 cache and FSB (front-side bus)

access.

Codename

(main

Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP

14

Page 15: Intel Core i7

article)

Yonah

Core Duo T2xxx

2 MB Socket M

31 W

Core Duo L2xxx 15 W

Core Duo U2xxx 9 W

1.2. Core Solo

Intel Core Solo (product code 80538) uses the same two-core die as the Core Duo, but

features only one active core. Depending on demand, Intel may also simply disable one of the

cores to sell the chip at the Core Solo price—this requires less effort than launching and

maintaining a separate line of CPUs that physically only have one core. Intel used the same

strategy previously with the 486CPU in which early 486SX CPUs were in fact manufactured

as 486DX CPUs but with the FPU disabled.

Codename

(main article)Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP

Yonah

Core Solo T1xxx

2 MBSocket

M

27–31 W

Core Solo U1xxx 5.5–6 W

15

Page 16: Intel Core i7

Chapter 5. 64-Bit Core Microarchitecture Based

The successor to Core is the mobile version of the Intel Core 2 line of processors using cores

based upon the Intel Core microarchitecture, released on July 27, 2006. The release of the

mobile version of Intel Core 2 marks the reunification of Intel's desktop and mobile product

lines as Core 2 processors were released for desktops and notebooks, unlike the first Intel

Core CPUs that were targeted only for notebooks (although some small form factor and all-

in-one desktops, like the iMac and the Mac Mini, also used Core processors).

Unlike the Intel Core, Intel Core 2 is a 64-bit processor, supporting Intel 64. Another

difference between the original Core Duo and the new Core 2 Duo is an increase in the

amount of Level 2 cache. The new Core 2 Duo has tripled the amount of on-board cache to 6

MB. Core 2 also introduced a quad-core performance variant to the single- and dual-core

chips, branded Core 2 Quad, as well as an enthusiast variant, Core 2 Extreme. All three chips

are manufactured at a 65 nm lithography, and in 2008, a 45 nm lithography and support Front

Side Bus speeds ranging from 533 MHz to 1600 MHz In addition, the 45 nm die shrink of the

Core microarchitecture adds SSE4.1 support to all Core 2 microprocessors manufactured at a

45 nm lithography, therefore increasing the calculation rate of the processors.

5.1. Core 2 Solo

The Core 2 Solo introduced in September 2007, is the successor to the Core Solo and is

available only as an ultra-low-power mobile processor with 5.5 Watt thermal design power.

The original U2xxx series "Merom-L" used a special version of the Merom chip

with CPUIDnumber 10661 (model 22, stepping A1) that only had a single core and was also

used in some Celeron processors. The later SU3xxx are part of Intel's CULV range of

processors in a smaller µFC-BGA 956 package but contain the same Penryn chip as the dual-

core variants, with one of the cores disabled during manufacturing.

Codename

(main

article)

Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP

Merom-L Mobile Core 2 Solo U2xxx 1 MB FCBGA 5.5 W

Penryn-L Mobile Core 2 Solo SU3xxx 3 MB BGA956 5.5 W

16

Page 17: Intel Core i7

5.2. Core 2 Duo

The majority of the desktop and mobile Core 2 processor variants are Core 2 Duo with two

processor cores on a single Merom, Conroe, Allendale, Penryn, or Wolfdale chip. These

come in a wide range of performance and power consumption, starting with the relatively

slow ultra-low-power Uxxxx (10 W) and low-power Lxxxx (17 W) versions, to the more

performance oriented Pxxxx (25 W) and Txxxx (35 W) mobile versions and the Exxxx (65

W) desktop models. The mobile Core 2 Duo processors with an 'S' prefix in the name are

produced in a smaller µFC-BGA 956 package, which allows building more compact laptops.

Within each line, a higher number usually refers to a better performance, which depends

largely on core and front-side bus clock frequency and amount of second level cache, which

are model-specific. Core 2 Duo processors typically use the full L2 cache of 2, 3, 4, or 6 MB

available in the specific stepping of the chip, while versions with the amount of cache

reduced during manufacturing are sold for the low-end consumer market

as Celeron or Pentium Dual-Core processors. Like those processors, some low-end Core 2

Duo models disable features such as Intel Virtualization Technology. Details can be found at

the list of Intel Core 2 microprocessors.

Codename

(main

article)

Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP

Merom

Mobile Core 2 Duo U7xxx 2 MB

BGA479

10 W

Mobile Core 2 Duo L7xxx 4 MB 17 W

Mobile Core 2 Duo T5xxx 2 MB Socket

M

Socket P

BGA479

35 W

Mobile Core 2 Duo T7xxx 2–4 MB

Conroe and

Allendale

Core 2 Duo E4xxx 2 MB

LGA 775 65 W

Core 2 Duo E6xxx 2–4 MB

17

Page 18: Intel Core i7

Penryn

Mobile Core 2 Duo SU7xxx

3 MB

BGA956

10W

Mobile Core 2 Duo SU9xxx

Mobile Core 2 Duo SL9xxx

6 MB

17 W

Mobile Core 2 Duo SP9xxx 25 W

Mobile Core 2 Duo P7xxx

3 MB

Socket P

FCBGA6

25 WMobile Core 2 Duo P8xxx

Mobile Core 2 Duo P9xxx 6 MB

Mobile Core 2 Duo T6xxx 2 MB

35 WMobile Core 2 Duo T8xxx 3 MB

Mobile Core 2 Duo T9xxx 6 MB

Mobile Core 2 Duo E8xxx 6 MB Socket P 35-55 W

Wolfdale

Core 2 Duo E7xxx 3 MB

LGA 775 65 W

Core 2 Duo E8xxx 6 MB

1.1. Core 2 Quad

Core 2 Quad processors are multi-chip modules consisting of two dies similar to those used

in Core 2 Duo, forming a quad-core processor. This allows twice the performance of dual-

core processors at the same clock frequency in ideal conditions.

18

Page 19: Intel Core i7

All Core 2 Quad models were versions of Core 2 Duo desktop processors, Kentsfield derived

from Conroe and Yorkfield from Wolfdale, but later Penryn-QC was added as a high-end

version of the mobile dual-core Penryn.

The Xeon 32xx and 33xx processors are mostly identical versions of the desktop Core 2

Quad processors and can be used interchangeably.

Codename

(main

article)

Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP

Kentsfield Core 2 Quad Q6xxx 2×4 MB

LGA 775

95–105 W

Yorkfield

Core 2 Quad Q7xxx 2×1 MB 95 W

Core 2 Quad Q8xxx 2×2 MB

65–95 W

Core 2 Quad Q9xxx 2×3–2×6 MB

Penryn-QC Mobile Core 2 Quad Q9xxx 2×3–2×6 MB Socket P 45 W

1.2. Core 2 Extreme

Core 2 Extreme processors are enthusiast versions of Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Quad

processors, usually with a higher clock frequency and an unlocked clock multiplier, which

makes them especially attractive for overclocking.

This is similar to earlier Pentium processors labeled as Extreme Edition. Core 2 Extreme

processors were released at a much higher price than their regular version, often $999 or

more.

Codename

(main article) Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP

Merom Mobile Core 2 Extreme X7xxx 4 MB Socket P 44 W

19

Page 21: Intel Core i7

Chapter 2. Nehalem Microarchitecture Based

With the release of the Nehalem microarchitecture in November 2008, Intel introduced a

new naming scheme for its Core processors. There are three variants, Core i3, Core i5 and

Core i7, but the names no longer correspond to specific technical features like the number of

cores. Instead, the brand is now divided from low-level (i3), through mid-range (i5) to high-

end performance (i7), which correspond to three, four and five stars in Intel's Intel Processor

Rating following on from the entry-level Celeron (one star) and Pentium (two stars)

processors.Common features of all Nehalem based processors include an integrated DDR3

memory controller as well as QuickPath Interconnect or PCI Express and Direct Media

Interface on the processor replacing the aging quad-pumped Front Side Bus used in all earlier

Core processors. All these processors have 256 KB L2 cache per core, plus up to 12 MB

shared level 3 cache. Because of the new I/O interconnect, chipsets and mainboards from

previous generations can no longer be used with Nehalem based processors.

5.3. Core i3

The Core i3 was intended to be the new low end of the performance processor line

from Intel, following the retirement of the Core 2 brand. The first Core i3 processors were

launched on January 7, 2010. The first Nehalem based Core i3 was Clarkdale-based, with an

integrated GPU and two cores. The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium,

with slightly different configurations.

The Core i3-3xxM processors are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkdale

desktop processor. They are similar to the Core i5-4xx series but running at lower clock

speeds and without Turbo Boost. According to an Intel FAQ they do not support Error

Correction Code (ECC) memory. According to motherboard manufacturer Supermicro, if a

Core i3 processor is used with a server chipset platform such as Intel 3400/3420/3450, the

CPU will support ECC with UDIMM. When asked, Intel confirmed that, although the Intel 5

series chipset supports non-ECC memory only with the Core i5 or i3 processors, using those

processors on a motherboard with 3400 series chipsets it will support the ECC function of

ECC memory. A limited number of motherboards by other companies also support ECC with

Intel Core ix processors; the Asus P8B WS is an example, but it does not support ECC

memory under Windows non-server operating systems.

21

Page 22: Intel Core i7

Codename

(main

article)

Brand name (list)Core

sL3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus

Clarkdale Core i3-5xx

2

4 MB LGA 1156 73 W

Direct Media Interface,

Integrated GPU

Arrandale

Core i3-3xxM 3 MB rPGA-988A 35 W

Core i3-3xxUM 3 MB BGA-1288 18 W

5.4. Core i5

The first Core i5 using the Nehalem microarchitecture was introduced on September 8, 2009,

as a mainstream variant of the earlier Core i7, theLynnfield core.Lynnfield Core i5 processors

have an 8 MB L3 cache, a DMI bus running at 2.5 GT/s and support for dual-channel DDR3-

800/1066/1333 memory and have Hyper-threading disabled. The same processors with

different sets of features (Hyper-Threading and other clock frequencies) enabled are sold

as Core i7-8xx and Xeon 3400-series processors, which should not be confused with high-end

Core i7-9xx and Xeon 3500-series processors based on Bloomfield.

The Core i5-5xx mobile processors are named Arrandale and based on the 32 nm

Westmere shrink of the Nehalem microarchitecture. Arrandale processors have integrated

graphics capability but only two processor cores. They were released in January 2010,

together with Core i7-6xx and Core i3-3xx processors based on the same chip. The L3 cache

in Core i5-5xx processors is reduced to 3 MB, while the Core i5-6xx will use the full cache

and the Core i3-3xx will have no support for Turbo Boost. Clarkdale, the desktop version of

Arrandale, is sold as Core i5-6xx, along with related Core i3 and Pentium brands. It has

Hyper-Threading enabled and the full 4 MB L3 cache.

According to Intel "Core i5 desktop processors and desktop boards typically do not support

ECC memory", but information on limited ECC support in the Core i3 section also applies to

Core i5 and i7.

Codename Brand name (list) Core L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus

22

Page 23: Intel Core i7

(main article) s

Lynnfield

Core i5-7xx

4 8 MB

LGA 1156

95 W

Direct Media Interface

Core i5-7xxS 82 W

Clarkdale Core i5-6xx

2

4 MB73–87

W

Direct Media Interface,

Integrated GPU

Arrandale

Core i5-5xxM

3 MB

rPGA-988A 35 W

Core i5-4xxM

Core i5-5xxUM

BGA-1288 18 W

Core i5-4xxUM[32]

5.5. Core i7

Intel Core i7 as an Intel brand name applies to several families of desktop and laptop 64 bit x86-

64  processors using the  Nehalem Westmere, SandyBridge and Ivy Bridge microarchitectures. The

Core i7 brand targets the business and high-end consumer markets for both desktop and laptop

computers, and is distinguished from the Core i3 (entry-level consumer), Core i5 (mainstream

consumer), and Xeon (server and workstation) brands.

Intel introduced the Core i7 name with the Bloomfield Quad-core processor in late 2008. In

2009 new Core i7 models based on the Lynnfield desktop quad-core processor and

the Clarksfield quad-core mobile were added, and models based on the Arrandale dual-core

mobile processor were added in January 2010. The first six-core processor in the Core lineup

is the Gulftown, which was launched on March 16, 2010. Both the regular Core i7 and

the Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating. In January

2011, Intel released the second generation of Core i7 processors. Both the first and second

generation of Intel Core i7 processors are rated as 5 stars in the Intel processor rating. The

23

Page 24: Intel Core i7

second generation of Intel core processors are based on the "Sandy Bridge" core and were

updated in April 2012 with "Ivy Bridge".

In each of the first three microarchitecture generations of the brand, Core i7 has family

members using two distinct system-level architectures, and therefore two distinct sockets (for

example, LGA 1156 and LGA 1366 with Nehalem). In each generation, the highest-

performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and QPI-based architecture as the low-end

Xeon processors of that generation, while lower-performing Core i7 processors use the same

socket and PCIe/DMI/FDI architecture as the Core i5.

"Core i7" is a successor to the Intel Core 2 brand. Intel representatives stated that

the moniker Core i7 is meant to help consumers decide which processor to purchase as the

newer Nehalem-based products are released in the future.

Code

nameBrand name Cores

L3

CacheSocket TDP Process Busses

Release

Date

Gulftown

Core i7-9xxX Extreme

Edition

6 12 MB

LGA 1366130

W

32 nm

QPI,

3

× DDR3

Mar

2010

Core i7-9xx Jul 2010

Bloomfield

Core i7-9xx Extreme Edition 4 8 MB 45 nm

Nov

2008

Core i7-9xx

Lynnfield

Core i7-8xx

LGA 1156

95 W DMI,

PCI-e,

2

× DDR3

Sep 2009

Core i7-8xxS 82 W Jan 2010

Clarksfield Core i7-9xxXM Extreme

Edition

rPGA-

988A55 W

Sep 2009

Core i7-8xxQM 45 W

24

Page 26: Intel Core i7

Chapter 1. Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture Based

In early 2011, a new microarchitecture named Sandy Bridge microarchitecture was

introduced; whilst keeping all the existing brands from Nehalem, including Core i3/i5/i7, it

introduces new model numbers. The initial set of Sandy Bridge processors includes dual- and

quad-core variants, all of which use a single 32 nm die for both the CPU and integrated GPU

cores, unlike the earlier microarchitectures. All Core i3/i5/i7 processors with the Sandy

Bridge microarchitecture have a four-digit model number. With the mobile version,

the thermal design power can no longer be determined from a one- or two-letter suffix but is

encoded into the CPU number. Starting with Sandy Bridge, Intel no longer distinguishes the

code names of the processor based on number of cores, socket or intended usage; they all use

the same code name as the microarchitecture itself. Ivy Bridge is the codename for Intel's

22 nm die shrink of the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture based on tri-gate ("3D") transistors,

introduced in April 2012.

1.1.Core i3

Released on January 20, 2011, the Core i3-2xxx line of desktop and mobile processors is a

direct replacement of the 2010 "Clarkdale" Core i3-5xx and "Arrandale" Core i3-3xxM

models, based on the new microarchitecture. While they require new sockets and chipsets, the

user-visible features of the Core i3 are largely unchanged, including the lack of support

for Turbo Boost and AES-NI. Unlike the Sandy Bridge based Celeron and Pentium

processors, the Core i3 line does support the new Advanced Vector Extensions.

The Ivy Bridge based Core-i3-3xxx line is a minor upgrade to 22 nm process technology and

better graphics.

Codename

(main article)Brand name (list)

Core

sL3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus

Sandy Bridge (Desktop)

Core i3-21xx 2 3 MB

LGA 1155

65 W Direct Media Interface,

Integrated GPU

Core i3-21xxT 35 W

Sandy Bridge (Mobile) Core i3-2xx0M rPGA-988B

26

Page 27: Intel Core i7

BGA-1023

Core i3-2xx7M BGA-1023 17 W

Ivy Bridge (Mobile)

Core i3-3xx0MrPGA-988B

BGA-102335 W

Core i3-3xx7U 9Y BGA-102317 W

13 W

1.2. Core i5

In January 2011, Intel released new quad-core Core i5 processors based on the "Sandy

Bridge" microarchitecture at CES 2011. New dual-core mobile processors and desktop

processors arrived in February 2011.

The Core i5-2xxx line of desktop processors are mostly quad-core chips, with the exception

of the dual-core Core i5-2390T, and include integrated graphics, combining the key features

of the earlier Core i5-6xx and Core i5-7xx lines. The suffix after the four-digit model number

designates unlocked multiplier (K), low-power (S) and ultra-low-power (T).

The desktop CPUs now all have four non-SMT cores (like the i5-750), with the exception of

the i5-2390T. The DMI bus is running at 5 GT/s.

The mobile Core i5-2xxxM processors are all dual-core chips like the previous Core i5-5xxM

series and share most the features with that product line.

Codename

(main article)Brand name (list)

Core

sL3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus

Sandy Bridge (Desktop) Core i5-2xxx

Core i5-2xxxK

4 6 MB LGA 115595 W

Direct Media Interface,

Integrated GPU

Core i5-2xxxS 65 W

Core i5-25xxT 45 W

27

Page 28: Intel Core i7

Core i5-23xxT 2 3 MB 35 W

Ivy Bridge (Desktop)

Core i5-3xxx

Core i5-3xxxK

4 6 MB

77 W

Core i5-3xxxS 65 W

Core i5-35xxT 45 W

Core i5-34xxT 2 3 MB 35 W

Sandy Bridge (Mobile)

Core i5-2xxxM

2 3 MB

rPGA-988B

BGA-102335 W

Core i5-2xx7M BGA-1023 17 W

Ivy Bridge (Mobile)

Core i5-3xx0MrPGA-988B

BGA-102335 W

Core i5-3xx7U 9Y BGA-102317 W

13 W

1.3. Core i7

The Core i7 brand remains the high-end for Intel's desktop and mobile processors, featuring

the Sandy Bridge models with the largest amount of L3 cache and the highest clock

frequency. Most of these models are very similar to their smaller Core i5 siblings. The quad-

core mobile Core i7-2xxxQM/XM processors follow the previous "Clarksfield" Core i7-

xxxQM/XM processors, but now also include integrated graphics.

28

Page 29: Intel Core i7

Codename

(main article)

Brand name

(list)

Core

s

L3

CacheSocket TDP Process I/O Bus

Release

Date

Ivy Bridge

(Desktop)

Core i7-37xx

4 8 MBLGA

1155

77 W

22 nm

Direct Media

Interface,

Integrated GPU

April 2012

Core i7-37xxK

Core i7-37xxS 65 W

Core i7-37xxT 45 W

Sandy Bridge-E

(Desktop)

Core i7-39xxX

6

15 MB

LGA

2011

130

W

32 nm

Direct Media

Interface

November

2011Core i7-39xxK 12 MB

Core i7-38xx 4 10 MB

Sandy Bridge

(Desktop)

Core i7-2xxxK,

i7-2xxx

8 MB

LGA

1155

95 WDirect Media

Interface,

Integrated GPUJanuary

2011

Core i7-2xxxS 65 W

Ivy Bridge

(Mobile)

Core i7-

3xx0QM, i7-

3xx0QE

rPGA-

988B

BGA-

1023

45 W

22 nm April 2012

Core i7-

3xx2QM, i7-

3xx2QE

35 W

29

Page 31: Intel Core i7

Chapter 2. INTEL CORE i7

Core i7 is first processor using Nehalem Micro-architecture, with

faster, intelligent, multi-core technology that applies processing power

where it's needed most, new Intel Core i7 processors deliver an

incredible breakthrough in PC performance. They are the best desktop

processor family on the planet.

You will multitask applications faster and unleash incredible digital media creation. And

you'll experience maximum performance for everything you do, thanks to the combination of

Intel Turbo Boost technology and Intel Hyper-Threading technology, which maximizes

performance to match your workload. Following figure shows internal representation of core

i7 processor.

Fig.01 - Internal representation of processor i7

Among the key peculiarities of the new CPU we absolutely have to point out the

following:

Native quad-core structure. Single processor die contains four cores with 32-KB L1

cache for each and 256KB L2 cache each and 8MB shared L3 cache for all of them.

Memory controller built into the CPU supports triple-channel DDR3 SDRAM. Each

channel can work with two unbuffered DIMM modules.

There is SMT (Simultaneous Multithreading) technology It allows each Core i7 core

to process two computational threads simultaneously, so the operating system sees the

processor as an 8-core one.

31

Page 32: Intel Core i7

Integrated PCU microcontroller that independently adjusts voltages and core

frequencies and can automatically over-clock some cores when others aren’t loaded

too heavily.

Core i7 is manufactured with 45nm process, consists of 731 million transistors.

Nehalem is the codename for an Intel processor micro-architecture, successor to the Core

micro-architecture. The first processor released with the Nehalem architecture is the desktop

Core i7.

Various sources have stated the specifications of processors in the Nehalem family:

Two, four, six, or eight cores

731 million transistors for the quad core variant

45 nm manufacturing process

Integrated memory controller supporting two or three memory channels of DDR3

SDRAM

Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) by multiple cores which enables two threads per

core. Intel calls this hyper-threading.

Native (monolithic, i.e. all processor cores on a single die) quad- and octa-core

processors.

The following caches:

32 KB L1 instruction and 32 KB L1 data cache per core.

256 KB L2 cache per core.

4–8 MB L3 cache shared by all cores

32

Page 33: Intel Core i7

Chapter 3. FEATURES AND BENEFITS

3.1. Quad-Core Processor

Provides four complete execution cores in a single processor with 256KB of L2 cache and

8MB of L3 cache. Eight dedicated, physical threads help operating systems and applications

deliver additional performance, so end users can experience better multi-tasking and multi-

threaded performance across many types of applications and workloads.

1.1. 8 MB Intel Smart Cache

This large last-level cache enables dynamic and efficient allocation of shared cache to all four

cores to match the needs of various applications for ultra efficient data storage and

manipulation. It provides a higher-performance, more efficient cache subsystem. Optimized

for industry leading multi-threaded games.

1.2. Intel Hyper-Threading Technology

The processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading Technology which allows an execution core to

function as two logical processors. While some execution resources such as caches, execution

units, and buses are shared, each logical processor has its own architectural state with its own

set of general-purpose registers and control registers.

This feature must be enabled using the BIOS and requires operating system support. Intel

recommends enabling Hyper-Threading Technology with Microsoft Windows Vista,

Microsoft Windows XP Professional/Windows XP Home, and disabling Hyper-Threading

Technology using the BIOS for all previous versions of Windows operating systems.

1.3. Intel 64-bit architecture

Intel 64-bit architecture delivers 64-bit computing on server, workstation, desktop and mobile

platforms when combined with supporting software. Intel 64 architecture improves

performance by allowing systems to address more than 4 GB of both virtual and physical

memory.

1.4. Intel Turbo Boost Technology

Intel Turbo Boost Technology is one of the many exciting new features that Intel has built

into core i7 processor. It automatically allows processor cores to run faster than the base

33

Page 34: Intel Core i7

operating frequency if it's operating below power, current, and

temperature specification limits.

The maximum frequency of Intel Turbo Boost Technology is

dependent on the number of active cores. The amount of time the

processor spends in the Intel Turbo Boost Technology state

depends on the workload and operating environment, providing the performance you need,

when and where you need it.

Any of the following can set the upper limit of Intel Turbo Boost Technology on a given

workload:

Number of active cores

Estimated current consumption

Estimated power consumption

Processor temperature

No special hardware support is necessary for Intel Turbo Boost Technology. BIOS and the

operating system can enable or disable Intel Turbo Boost Technology.

1.5. Integrated memory controller

Integrated memory controller enables three channels of DDR3 1066 MHz memory,

resulting in up to 25.6 GB/sec memory bandwidth. This memory controller's lower latency

and higher memory bandwidth delivers amazing performance for data-intensive applications.

1.6. Enhanced Intel Speed-Step Technology

Running a processor at high clock speeds allows for better performance. However, when the

same processor is run at a lower frequency, it generates less heat and consumes less power. In

many cases, the core voltage can also be reduced, Further reducing power.

34

Page 35: Intel Core i7

Chapter 2. SPECIFICATIONS AND INSTRUCTION SET

2.1.Specifications

Clock frequency 2.66 GHz to 3.33GHz

Code name “Bloomfield” & “Lynnfield”

Cores 4

Core Stepping C0

Core Voltage 1.18V-1.21V

Bus/Core Ratio 20

Thermal Specification 62.2°C

Typical heat(thermal design power) 105 W

Manufacturing technology 45 nm

No of Transistors 731 million

Chipset support Express 58

Instruction set MMX,SSE,SSE2,SSE3,

SSSE3,SSE4

Intel Hyper-Threading Technology Yes

Intel Turbo Boost Technology Yes

Intel Virtualization Technology Yes

Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology Yes

Execute Disable Bit Yes

Intel 64-bit architecture Yes

Intel smart cache 8MB

Processor Integrated Memory

ControllerYes

Number of Memory Channels 3 (DDR3 1066 MHz)

35

Page 36: Intel Core i7

1.1.Instruction Set

An instruction set is a list of all the instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can

execute. A single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) machine is one in which a single

instruction stream has the ability to process multiple data streams simultaneously. These

machines are useful in applications such as general digital signal processing, image

processing, and multimedia applications such as audio and video. Originally, supercomputers

known as array processors or vector processors provided SIMD processing capabilities.

Almost all computers today implement some form of SIMD instruction set.

Intel core i7 processors implement the MMX, Streaming SIMD Extensions

(SSE), Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2), and Streaming SIMD Extensions 3

(SSE3), Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3(SSSE4), Streaming SIMD

Extensions 4(SSE4) instruction sets that are capable of processing multiple data

elements in a single clock. The multiple data elements are stored in the floating point

registers. A multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) machine is capable of is

executing multiple instruction streams, while working on a separate and independent

data stream. The instruction set MMX is 64-bit instruction set. The instruction set

SSE is 128-bit instruction set.

Name Description

MMX MMX SIMD instructions

SSE Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) instructions

SSE2 Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 instructions

SSE3 Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 instructions

SSSE3 Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3

instructions

SSE4 Streaming SIMD Extensions 4 instructions

36

Page 37: Intel Core i7

Chapter 2. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

2.1. Advantages:

Big cache size:

This processor has 8 Mb last level caches shared among four cores. This helps to

increase Instruction execution speed.

Very fast:

Using the combination of Intel Turbo Boost Technology and Intel Hyper-Threading

Technology processor speed is becomes faster. It is very fast processor as compared

to other processor.

Better cooling system:

A 4-pin connector is included for fan speed control to help minimize the acoustic

noise levels generated from running the fan at higher speeds for thermal performance.

For the cooling of processor it provides Cooler running technology, less heat and less

noise. Supplied with Intel reference heat-sink & fan, as temperature increase speed of

fan get become increase.

2.2. Disadvantages

Cost:

The main disadvantage of core i7 processor is its cost, It a expensive processor as

compared to previous processor. Its cost is over 15000 Rs.

Power Consumption:

Power consumption of core i7 processor is not better as compared with the core 2 duo

processors.

37

Page 38: Intel Core i7

Chapter 3. COMPARISON BETWEEN i3, i5 and i7

Fig. - Processors i3, i5 and i7

Intel Core i3 Processor

This particular Intel processor is the entry level processor of this new series of Intel

processors. While it may not be the fastest one of the bunch, it can get the job done, at least

for most applications.

Uses 4 threads. Yes, it uses hyperthreading technology which is the latest craze

due to its improved efficiency over earlier processors that were put on the market.

This processor consists of 2-4 cores, depending on which one you get your hands

on.

Contains A 3-4 MB Cache

Uses less heat and energy than earlier processors, which is always a good thing in

this day and age.

Intel Core i5 Processor

This is the mid-size processor of this bunch, recommended for those who demand a little

speed, but not quite enough where the user will be running resource-intensive applications.

As with the Core i3 processor, this comes with 2-4 cores, the main difference is

that it has a higher clock speed than the Core i3.

This is also a heat and energy efficient processor, but it does seem to be better at

this particular job than the Core i3 processor.38

Page 39: Intel Core i7

The number of threads used in this is no different than the Core i3 with 2-4

threads, and it also uses hyperthreading technology for a boost in performance.

The cache of the Core i5 is bigger than the Core i3, it’s at 3-8 MB.

The Core i5 is where the turbo mode is made available, this provides users with

the opportunity to turn off a core if it’s not being utilized.

Intel Core i7 Processor

This is for the users that demand power, yes it does provide more power and Great for gamers

and other resource intensive users.

The cache on this one is 4-8 MB.

This processor comes with 8 threads, definitely enough to get the job done

quickly, may be even at the speed of light if you’re lucky.

It also utilizes hyper-threading technology as well as turbo boost technology.

You will have four cores to take advantage of with this particular series.

And just like the other ones in this Intel series of processors, it is more energy

efficient and produces less heat.

39

Page 40: Intel Core i7

Chapter 4. CONCLUSION

We have finally got acquainted with the new Core i7 processors, the first solutions on

Nehalem micro architecture targeted for desktop systems.

This processor is brilliant from multiple standpoints. It supports new interesting technologies,

such as SMT and Turbo Boost, and has an integrated memory controller with unprecedented

performance. In most applications except a few gaming titles, the new processors turned out

faster than Core 2 processors working at the same clock speed.

New Core i7 are indisputably better in most aspects than Core 2 Quad processors of

comparable price. Their performance is almost always higher, which is especially evident in

case of multi-threaded load and their power consumption is comparable with that of their

predecessors.

Over-clocking the core i7 processors also seems to be easier. Servers will also likely benefit

greatly from using an i7 - the memory bandwidth is simply insane. It is more energy efficient

and produces less heat.

The core i7 utilizes Hyper-Threading technology as well as Turbo Boost Technology. Core i7

is first processor using Nehalem Micro-architecture, with faster, intelligent, multi-core

technology that applies processing power where it's needed most, new Intel Core i7

processors deliver an incredible breakthrough in PC performance.

40

Page 41: Intel Core i7

REFRENCES

Intel Core - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core

Intel® Core™ Processor Family

URL : http://www.intel.in/content/www/us/en/processors/core/core-processor-family.html

Intel® Core™ i7 Processor

URL : http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/processors/core/core-i7-processor.html

Intel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel

Processor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor

Central processing unit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit

Intel Turbo Boost - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Turbo_Boost

List of Intel Core i7 microprocessors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_Core_i7_microprocessors

I7 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I7

Intel Core i7 - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core_i7

Intel Core - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

41

Page 42: Intel Core i7

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core#Core_i7_2

Nehalem (microarchitecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nehalem_(microarchitecture)

Sandy Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandy_Bridge

Nehalem (microarchitecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Westmere#Westmere

Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivy_Bridge_(microarchitecture)

Microarchitecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microarchitecture

42