Germ line determination (2)

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<ul><li><p>Germ Line Cells DeterminationHerbert, B.Davao Medical School Foundation</p></li><li><p>Student Learning Objectives1. You should understand that sexual reproduction requiring the fusion of gametes from male and female gonads occurs in specific organisms.</p><p>2. You should understand that the primordial germ cells that give rise to gametes arise outside of the gonads and must migrate to them.</p><p>3. You should understand that in most organisms the primordial germ cells are specified conditionally, while in some they are specified autonomously by cytoplasmic determinants in the egg.</p><p>4. You should understand that migration of the germ cells from their site of origin to the gonads is an essential part of reproductive success .</p></li><li><p>IntroductionIn all plants and some animals, somatic cells can readily form new organismsCnidarians, flatworms, tunicates</p><p>In many animals, there is an early division between somatic and germ cellsInsects, roundworms, vertebrates</p></li><li><p>Definition of TermsFertilizationProcess of union of two gametes whereby the somatic chromosome number is restored and the development of a new individual is initiated. cf. fecundation, insemination, pollinationGonadA reproductive gland (as an ovary or testis) that produces gametesGametesMature male or female germ cell usually possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new diploid individual by fusion with a gamete of the opposite sex</p></li><li><p>Definition of Terms</p><p>GametogenesisProcesses by which the sperm and the egg are formedInvolves forming the PGCs and getting them into the genital as the gonad is formingGerm CellsProvide the continuity of life between generationsMitotic ancestors of our own germ cells once resided in the gonads of reptiles, fishes, and invertebrates.Primordial Germ CellsPrecursors of germ cells.</p></li><li><p>Definition of TermsGerm lineThe cellular lineage of a sexually reproducing organism from which eggs and sperm are derivedContains the genetic material in a cellular lineage which can be passed to the next generation</p></li><li><p> Germ Line Determination</p></li><li><p>Insects, Roundworms and VertebratesPossesses a clear and early separation of germ cells from somatic cell types</p><p>Established germ line separates from the somatic cells early in development</p><p>Germ cells do not arise from within the gonad itself but from Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs), their precursors and then migrate into the developing gonads</p></li><li><p>Several other animal phyla: cnidarians, flatworms, tunicates</p><p>Include the entire plant kingdom and some invertebratesDivision not well establishedSomatic cells readily become germ cells (even in adult organisms) and give rise to new individuals</p></li><li><p>The Formation of the Germ Plasm and the Determination of the PGCS</p></li><li><p>Key ConceptAll sexually reproducing organisms arise from the fusion of gametes (eggs and sperm)All gametes arise from the primordial germ cells</p></li><li><p>Two step process</p><p>Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are determined in a specific location in the embryo</p><p>PGCs migrate to the gonad and become the progenitor population for eggs and sperm</p></li><li><p>Two Methods of Germ Cell DeterminationAutonomous SpecificationEgg cytoplasmic determinantsCalled Germ PlasmNematodes, flies, frogs</p><p>Conditional SpecificationSignals from surrounding cellsMajority of sexually reproducing organismsIncluding mammals</p></li><li><p>The Germ PlasmThe determination of the PGCs is brought about by the cytoplasmic localization of specific proteins and mRNAs in certain cells of the early embryo (true for most animals except mammals)</p><p>These cytoplasmic components are referred to as the germ plasm</p></li><li><p>Germ cell determination in Nematodes (Round worms)</p></li><li><p>Parascaris aequorum (AKA Ascaris megalocephala)</p><p>Has only two chromosomes per haploid cellCleavage plane of the first embryonic division to form an animal derived blastomere is equatorial, separating the animal half from the vegetal half of the zygote </p></li><li><p>The nematodeRemember cleavage and gastrulation:Asymmetrical divisions produce astem cell (P-lineage), founder cell.Stem cell divisions are meridionalFounder cell divisions are equatorial</p></li><li><p>Germ Cell MigrationDuring cleavage the germ plasm rises up until it ends up in the endoderm at top and back near lip</p></li><li><p>A. Animal Half of the Blastomere</p><p>Before the cells divide, there is a fragmentation of the ends of the chromosomes into dozens of pieces (Chromosome diminution)</p><p>Only a portion of the original chromosome survives</p></li><li><p>Germ Cell Migration: FrogsThe endoderm belowmesdoderm are PGCs</p></li><li><p>Germ Cell Migration: FrogsMigration anterior to gonads atendoderm-mesoderm boundary~30 PGCs reach gonadsby fibronectin and Sdf-1</p></li><li><p>B. Vegetal Blastomere</p><p>Chromosomes remain normal</p></li><li><p>Conditional Specification of mammalian PGCs</p></li><li><p>Conditional Specification of mammalian PGCsPosterior of epiblast at the junction of the primitive streak and extraembryonic ectodermCells are no different from other epiblastSpecified in gastrulation before 3 layers formWnts from endoderm make them competentBMPs from extraembryo ectoderm finish it</p></li><li><p>Picture the blastocyst full of yolk.....</p></li><li><p>DevBio9e-Fig-05-42-2R.jpg DevBio9e-Fig-16-13-0.jpg DevBio9e-Fig-07-06-1R.jpg DevBio9e-Fig-07-06-2R.jpg DevBio9e-Fig-08-23-1R.jpg </p></li></ul>