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Bert De Bievre, Miguel Saravia, Luis Acosta Chiang Mai, september 2011 Drivers in the Andes

Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta

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Text of Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta

  • 1.
    • Bert De Bievre, Miguel Saravia, Luis Acosta
    • Chiang Mai, september 2011
    Drivers in the Andes

2. Relevant conditions in Andes 3. 4. Relevant conditions in Andes (1)

  • (very) high mountains with a lot of people in them
  • Extremely variable conditions

Altitude range 0 - 6746 (masl) Bolivia 252 - 6542 Colombia 0 - 5750 Ecuador 0 - 6267 Per 0 - 6746 Precipitation range 31 9000 (mm/year) Bolivia 200 - 5000 Colombia 300 9000 Ecuador 125 - 6000 Per 31 3838 Source: Principales indicadores de la Unin de Naciones Suramericanas1998 2007(SGCA, 2008c), (PNUMA & SGCA, 2003), Fondo Mundial para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza (WWF). INDICATOR BOLIVIA COLOMBIA ECUADOR PER CAN (2005) Population (millions) 9,4 44,9 13,2 27,3 94,8 Urban (%) 64 77 63 73 72 Rural (%) 36 23 37 27 28 Data from CEPALSTAT (CEPAL, 2008) 5. Relevant conditions in Andes (2)

  • Mountain rivers with limited regulation capacity
  • Very high temporal variability of water availability in sources:
    • Small catchments in case of high altitude offtakes
    • High dependence on few regulation mechanisms: peatlands, glaciers
    • Little regulation infrastructure

6. Relevant conditions in Andes (3)

  • Water demand at high altitudes

Dependent on regulation mechanisms at even higher altitude, where groundwater regulation is almost unexistent 7. Relevant conditions in Andes (4)

  • Water demand in lower river reach very variable (Perus coastal desert: very high, Amazon tributaries: very low)

Source: ANA Per 2010 Atlntico Pacfico Titicaca 8. Relevant conditions in Andes (5)

  • Traditional knowledge and technologies to manage natural resources

9. Important drivers in Andes 10. Important drivers in Andes (1)

  • Urbanization: drastic increase in urban population, rural population more or less stable. Causes geographical concentration of water demand

Source:Presentation Water Management and Climate Change, by Axel Dourojeanni, Lima 2010. Source: Estrategia Andina para GIRH, CAN 2010. 11. Important drivers in Andes (2)

  • Free trade agreements boost agroindustry for export, but large differences between countries

12. Important drivers in Andes (3)

  • Land degradation: loss of regulation capacity in mountain catchments
  • Some spontaneous recuperation in abandoned land (migration)
  • Doubts on reversibility

13. Important drivers in Andes (3)

  • Land degradation: loss of regulation capacity in mountain catchments

Source: Wouter Buytaert, 2010. 14. Important drivers in Andes (3) 15. Important drivers in Andes (3) 16. Important drivers in Andes (4)

  • Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain

17. Important drivers in Andes (4)

  • Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain

Projected changes in ecosystems area: the higher ecosystems only loose, the lower ones loose and gain (Cuesta et al., 2010) 18. Important drivers in Andes (4)

  • Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain

Range of projected annual rainfall 19. Responses for Andes 20. Responses (1)

  • Urbanization: focus on catchments supplying water to large cities (e.g. water funds), campaigning for reduction of demand, large infrastructure to bring in water from further away.

21. Responses (2)

  • Agroindustry: Interest for catchment, very recent (!), especially Peru
  • Example: Design of PES in Rio Ca ete basin

22. Responses (3)

  • Land degradation: conservation of critical ecosystems (paramo, puna wetlands), in lower areas little response

23. Responses (4)

  • Climate change: adaptation actions
  • Whole lot of projects, governmental at national and local scale, and non-governmental
  • Nothing really new:
    • Integrated Water Resources Management
    • Integrated Catchment Management
    • Typically reforestation with low positive hydrological impact or even negative impact

24. Responses (5)

  • From Payment for Environmental Services to Benefit Sharing:
    • Inventory shows that few cases in Andes meet criteria to be Payment for Environmental Services
    • Large variety of Benefit Sharing Mechanisms
    • Strong resistance to PES in countries like Ecuador and Bolivia, now almost forbidden by law

25. Responses (6)

  • Integrated Water Resources Management
  • Efforts to update legislation and institutional framework
    • New Water Law, without success in most countries
    • Framework for basin organizations/authorities
  • In absence of legal framework, Municipalities establish partnerships to manage catchments

26. Contacts : [email_address] [email_address] www.condesan.org