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Text of DNA RNA

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2. NUCLEIC ACIDS: Are biological molecules essential for known forms of life on earth They include DNA and RNA Discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869 They are named so because of their initial discovery in nucleus 3. DNA stands for deoxyribo nucleic acid This chemical substance is present in the nucleus of all cells in all living organisms DNA controls all the chemical changes which take place in cells The kind of cell which is formed, (muscle, blood, nerve etc) is controlled by DNA The kind of organism which is produced (buttercup, giraffe, herring, human etc) is controlled by DNA DNA 2 4. DNA is a very large molecule made up of a long chain of sub-units The sub-units are called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar called deoxyribose a phosphate group -PO4 and an organic base DNA molecule 3 5. The deoxyribose, the phosphate and one of the bases adenine deoxyribose PO4 Combine to form a nucleotide NUCLEOTIDES 6 6. The most common organic bases are Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) THE BASES 5 7. The bases always pair up in the same way Adenine forms a bond with Thymine and Cytosine bonds with Guanine Bonding 1 10 Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine 8. Adenine and guanine are known as PURINES Thymine and cytosine are known as PYRIMIDINES, in RNA instead of thymine it is Uracil Adenine pairs with Thymine forming two hydrogen bonds Cytosine pairs with Guanine forming with three hydrogen bonds 9. Purines Pyrimidines Purines are double ringed structures Pyrimidines are single ringed structures Example of purine bases are Adenine and Guanine Example of pyrimidine bases are Thymine and Cytosine( in DNA), Uracil and cytosine ( in RNA) 10. Ribose is a sugar, like glucose, but with only five carbon atoms in its molecule Deoxyribose is almost the same but lacks one oxygen atom Both molecules may be represented by the symbol THE SUGARS:RIBOSE & DEOXYRIBOSE 4 11. STRUCTURE OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEOTIDE AND RIBONUCLEOTIDE 12. NUCLEOSIDE NUCLEOTIDE Nucleoside is a component formed by the union of a nitrogen base with a pentose sugar Nucleotide is a component formed by the union of a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar and phosphate It is a component of nucleotide It formed after phosphorylation of nucleoside 13. FUNCTIONS OF DNA: It is the genetic material, therefore responsible for carrying all the hereditary information. It has property of replication essential for passing genetic information from one cell to its daughters or from one generation to next. Crossing over produces recombination Changes in sequence and no. of nucleotides causes Mutation which is responsible for all variations and formation of new species. It controls all the metabolic reaction of cells through RNAs and RNA directed synthesis of proteins. 14. A molecule of DNA is formed by millions of nucleotides joined together in a long chain PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 sugar-phosphate backbone + bases Joined nucleotides 7 15. In fact, the DNA usually consists of a double strand of nucleotides The sugar-phosphate chains are on the outside and the strands are held together by chemical bonds between the bases 8 16. PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 2-stranded DNA 9 17. PO4 PO4 PO4 thymine PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 adenine cytosine PO4 guanine Bonding 2 11 18. PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 Pairing up 12 19. ROLE OF PHOSPHODIESTER LINKAGE Phosphodiester Bonds Link Successive Nucleotides in Nucleic Acids The successive nucleotides of both DNA and RNA are covalently linked through phosphate-group bridges, in which the 5- phosphate group of one nucleotide unit is joined to the 3-hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide, creating a phosphodiester linkage . 20. The chain has a 5 end, which is usually attached to a phosphate, and a 3 end, which is usually a free hydroxyl group 21. The paired strands are coiled into a spiral called A DOUBLE HELIX 13 22. sugar-phosphate chain bases THE DOUBLE HELIX 14 23. ANTIPARALLEL NATURE The two strands of DNA are also antiparallel(run in opposite directions) to one another. A strand of DNA can have the direction 5'-3' or 3'- 5'. One strand in the DNA molecule is 5'-3' and the other strand is 3'-5'. 24. DNA STRUCTURE 25. The two strands run antiparallely and are complimentary to each other. The coiling is right handed. The major groove occurs where the backbones are far apart, the minor groove occurs where they are close together. Two helical polynucleotide chains are coiled around a common axis. The chains run in opposite directions. The sugar-phosphate backbones are on the outside and, therefore, the purine and pyrimidine bases lie on the inside of the helix.Adenine always pairs with Thymine, Guanine binds with Cytosine The bases are nearly perpendicular to the helix axis, and adjacent bases are separated by 3.4 . The helical structure repeats every 34 , so there are 10 bases (= 34 per repeat/3.4 per base) per turn of helix. There is a rotation of 36 degrees per base (360 degrees per full turn/10 bases per turn). The diameter of the helix is 20 . 26. CHARGAFFS RULE: It states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and more specifically that the amount of guanine is equal to amount of cytosine and amount of adenine is equal to amount of thymine %A=%T %G=%C 27. DENATURATION OR MELTING The hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases of complementray DNA can break due to high temperature, low or high pH known as Melting or Denaturation of DNA. A-T base pairs can go easy denaturation due to presence of only two hydrogen bonds, whereas G-C base pairs are comparitively more stable (high melting point) due to presence of three hydrogen bonds. 28. RNA Like DNA, RNA is also made of a long chain of nucleotides. Some RNA molecules play an active role in cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. In RNA molecules instead of the base T, base U is found. Generally three types of RNA molecules are found in the cell mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. 29. MESSENGER RNA:mRNA Comprise only 5% of total cellular RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information about a protein sequence to the ribosomes, the protein synthesis factories in the cell. It is coded so that every three nucleotides (a codon) correspond to one amino acid. The synthesis of mRNA takes place inside the nucleus and after its synthesis, it is exported out where it attaches to ribosomes for protein synthesis. After certain amount of time the message in mRNA is degraded into its component nucleotides. 30. TRANSFER RNA:tRNA tRNA represents 15% of total RNA in the cell. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain of about 80 nucleotides that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has sites for amino acid attachment and an anticodon region for codon recognition that binds to a specific sequence on the messenger RNA chain through hydrogen bonding. 31. STRUCTURE OF tRNA Anticodon arm : Made up of three nitrogen bases for recognising and attaching to the codon of mRNA A-A Binding Site: It lies at the3 end and has CCA-OH group TC Loop: Contains pseudouridine, site for attaching the ribosomes DHU Loop: Contains dihydrouridine, binding site for aminoacyl synthetase enzyme. Variable loop: Lies between the anticodon and TC loop. 32. RIBOSOMAL RNA (rRNA): 80% of total RNA in the cells are rRNA Ribosomal RNA is a constituent of Ribosomes rRNA are found in combination with several proteins (about 82 proteins) as component of the ribosome which is the site of protein synthesis. 33. CENTRAL DOGMA The set of ideas that describes how the cell uses the information stored in DNA is called the Central dogma The first step of central dogma is Transcription Transcription uses DNA as a template to copy genetic information into form of RNA The second step of central dogma is Translation Translation synthesizes the protein using RNA as a template 34. Character RNA DNA Nitrogenous bases RNA contains adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. DNA contain adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine; Strandedness RNA is single-stranded. DNA is double-stranded Location RNA can be found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. DNA is only found in the nucleus Functions RNA carries out protein synthesis. RNA transfers the information to other places in the cell DNA contains the information for protein synthesis. DNA stores genetic information Pentose sugar Hydroxyl group present at 2 carbon of the pentose sugar Absence of hydroxyl group at 2 C of the pentose sugar