Digital preservation through Digital Sustainability

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  • iPRES 2016 Stewardship & Sustainability II: Digital Preservation through Digital Sustainability

    Dr. Matthias Stuermer & Gabriel Abu-Tayeh

    Research Center for Digital Sustainability Institute of Information Systems University of Bern

    13th International Conference on Digital Preservation

    3 October 2016, Bern, Switzerland

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    Research Center for Digital Sustainability

    Team of 10 members and 3 PhD students at the Institut of Information Systems at University of Bern, founded in 2014

    Research, teaching and consulting on > Digital sustainability: SDGs, digital commons etc. > Open source software: Community governance,

    business models, maturity models, Inner Source etc. > Open data: Open data apps, interactive data

    visualizations, open aid, linked open data etc. > Open government: Transparency, participation,

    impact models, participatory apps (FixMyStreet) etc. > ICT procurement: No-bid contracts, vendor lock-in,

    open standards, agile procurement, requirements etc.

    www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch

    http://www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch/

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    Matthias Strmer

    > Since 2013 post-doc and head of Research Center for Digital Sustainability at the Institut of Information Systems at University of Bern

    > 2010 until 2013 senior consultant/manager regarding open source software, open data, social media, IT architecture, IT security, IT audit, and IT procurement at EY (Ernst & Young)

    > 2009 until 2010 business development and project manager at Liip AG

    > 2006 until 2009 assistent at ETH Zrich at the Chair of Strategic Management and Innovation (D-MTEC) of Prof. Georg von Krogh

    > 2000 until 2005 licentiate in business administration and computer science at University of Bern

    > President of tcbe.ch ICT Cluster Bern, Switzerland

    > Member of the board of CH Open

    > Co-founder and member of the board of Opendata.ch

    > Secretary of the Parliamentarian Group for Digital Sustainability

    > Member of the city parliament of Bern

    Dr. Matthias Strmer Post-doc, head of Research Center for Digital Sustainability University of Bern Institut of Information Systems Engehaldenstrasse 8 CH-3012 Bern Office: +41 31 631 38 09 Mobile: +41 76 368 81 65 Secretary: +41 31 631 38 79 Twitter: @maemst matthias.stuermer@iwi.unibe.ch www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch

    mailto:matthias.stuermer@iwi.unibe.chmailto:matthias.stuermer@iwi.unibe.chhttp://www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch/http://www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch/http://www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch/

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    Sustainable development

    Environment Humans

    Economy Knowledge

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    Related research

    > Sustainable Development (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

    > Digital Preservation (Smith Rumsey 2010)

    > Open source software: Private-Collective Innovation Model (von Hippel and von Krogh, 2003)

    > Knowledge Commons / Digital Commons (Frischmann et al. 2014)

    Sources: World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and

    Development: Our Common Future. Smith Rumsey, A., 2010. Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet: Ensuring Long-Term Access to Digital Information.

    Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access. von Hippel, E., von Krogh, G., 2003. Open Source Software and the Private-Collective Innovation Model: Issues for

    Organization Science. Organization Science 14, 209223. Frischmann, B.M., Madison, M.J., Strandburg, K.J., 2014. Governing Knowledge Commons. Oxford University Press on

    Demand.

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    10 Basic Conditions of Digital Sustainability

    Ecosystem

    Digital artifact

    1. Elaborateness 2. Transparent structures 3. Semantic data 4. Distributed location

    create use

    World

    5. Open licensing regime 6. Shared tacit knowledge 7. Participatory culture 8. Good governance 9. Diversified funding

    10. Contributing to sustainable development (NEW)

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    1. Elaborateness

    > Elaborateness is determined through their completeness, modularity, integrity, accuracy, security, robustness etc. regarding the quality of their substance.

    > Link to digital preservation: Problem: errors in documents and their metadata Challenge: growing demand for data storage

    in order to preserve high data quality Need: financial ressources

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    2. Transparent structures

    > Technical openness of digital artifact: spec, source code, data etc. > Transparency enables control and improvements from the public

    improving trust and reducing mistakes

    > Link to digital preservation: Open standard should be mandatory for data Software is needed to be able to open complex data files (e.g. GIS)

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    3. Semantic data

    > Semantic information (metadata, ontologies) make complex digital artifacts intelligible to humans and machines

    > Semantic information enables individuals, organizations and eventually society to absorb previously created knowledge and to advance that knowledge.

    > Link to digital preservation: Metadata is key (as we all know ;) E.g. Open Archival Information

    System (OAIS) reference model ISO standard 16363 on

    "Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories"

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    4. Distributed location

    > Distributed location means data, software and other digital artifacts are stored and operated on multiple sites e.g. through replicated data storage or peer-to-peer technology.

    > Increases long-term availability of digital artifacts and their operational reliability to the benefit of society.

    > Link to digital preservation: Example of peer-to-peer research platform:

    LOCKSS (Lots Of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) at the Stanford University Libraries

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    5. Open licensing regime

    > Everybody is allowed to use and change a digital good > Previously created knowledge can be re-used at no costs,

    Standing on the shoulders of giants > Allows society to fully exploit the intellectual capacity of humanity

    > Link to digital preservation:

    Open access principles important for libraries Granting long-term access without any legal limitations

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    6. Shared tacit knowledge

    > Many individuals and organizations who know via their experience how to understand, use and modify the digital artifacts.

    > Reduces dependence of society on a single or a few individuals, corporations or other organizations. Thus it empowers individuals and organizations to contribute.

    > Link to digital preservation: Challenge: correctly interpret stored information Goal: maintain and interpret resources

    in the long-term

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    7. Participatory culture

    > Participatory culture allows the creation of active ecosystems > Brings together knowledge and experience of different contributors > Peer-review enhances quality of contributions

    > Link to digital preservation:

    Quality assurance and information gathering processes Crowdsourcing projects by GLAM institutions

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    8. Good governance

    > Governance not by a single individual or organization, but decentralized among contributors and other stakeholders

    > Governance-processes (elections etc.) define responsibilities

    > Link to digital preservation: Decisions to be taken what to digitalize and what not well-documented, well-argued and

    transparent decisions (Becker et al. 2009)

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    9. Diversified funding

    > Cost covering of infrastructures, contributions and other spending from various financial sources.

    > Reduces control by a single entity thus increasing the independence of future improvements and decreasing the risk of conflicting interests.

    > Link to digital preservation: Diversified funding of digital preservation projects

    supports scientific independence and increases public awareness

    Goal: motivate private investments into digital preservation activities

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    10. Sustainable development (NEW)

    > Creation and use of digital artifacts needs natural and social resources. Are they being of sustainable orig