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<ul><li> 1. Presentation made by: Ms. Archika Bhatia COMPUTER SYSTEM ORGANISATION</li></ul><p> 2. Definition of Computer </p> <ul><li>Electronic Device </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts and stores input </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulates result </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs results </li></ul><ul><li>Under direction of stores programs and instructions </li></ul><p> 3. Characteristics of Computer </p> <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Diligence : not afflicted to tiredness, monotony, lack of concentration like human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Versatility : can work with different types of data like sound, graphics, audio. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><p> 4. What is Data and Information </p> <ul><li>Datais raw facts ex:India, 200, 4, Cricket, Wicket </li></ul><ul><li>Informationis meaningful and arranged form of data ex:Indias score in Cricket is 200 for 4 wickets. </li></ul><p> 5. Hardware refers to physical components that can be seen and touched. E.g. CPU, Memory, I/O devices. HARDWARE SOFTWARE Software is a set of programs that make the Hardware of the computer run. Program is a set of instructions. 6. FIRMWARE LIVEWARE </p> <ul><li>Firmware is like prewritten program that is permanently stored in read-only memory. BIOS ( Basic Input Output Services ) instructions are an example of firmware. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the term generally used for the people associated with and benefited from the computer system. </li></ul><p> 7. Generations of Computer Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. 8. TIME PERIOD :1940's-1950's TECHNOLOGY USED : Vacuum Tubes SIZE AND SPEED : Huge, taking up entire rooms, Slow speed LANGUAGE USED : Machine language COST : System and working cost very high. OTHER FEATURES : Used a great deal of electricity. Generated a lot of heat. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. EXAMPLE : UNIVAC and ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator ) Structure of aVaccum Tube UNIVAC ENIAC FIRST GENERATION 9. SECOND GENERATION TIME PERIOD :1950's- 1960's TECHNOLOGY USED : Transistors SIZE AND SPEED : Lesser size and increased speed LANGUAGE USED : Assembly language and languages like COBOL and FORTRANCOST : Cost decreased OTHER FEATURES : More efficient and reliable. Though the transistors still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. EXAMPLE : UNIVAC 1108, IBM 1401, CDC 1604 UNIVAC 1108 IBM 1401 TRANSISITORS 10. THIRD GENERATION TIME PERIOD :late 1960's-1970's TECHNOLOGY USED :Integrated CircuitSIZE AND SPEED :Size Lesser and speed further increased LANGUAGE USED :Operating System was developed. COST :Cost decreased further OTHER FEATURES : Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.EXAMPLE : IBM-360 series, Honeywell Model 316, Honeywell 6000 series, CDC 1700. IBM 360/50 11. FOURTH GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1970's-today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : High Level Languages like PASCAL, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. EXAMPLE: Intel 4004, Apple Macintosh TheMacintosh 128K , the first Macintosh, was the first commercially successful personal computer to use images, rather than text, to communicate. Intel 4004D microprocessor 12. FIFTH GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1990's -today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : Based on Artificial intelligence COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. EXAMPLE:Parallel Inference Machine Note : Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. Note : Voice Recognition is the field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words. 13. Hybrid Computers : Uses both digital and analog qualities. e.g. Digital thermometer Digital Computers : Work with digits or numbers. Types of Computer Analog Computers : Works on measurement of physical phenomenon like breath, rotation, electric effects, voltage. e.g. ECO, ECG, measuring distance traveled in KM. In car, Speedometer in car. 14. Classification of Digital Computers </p> <ul><li>Size and Purpose wise : </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose wise : </li></ul><ul><li>General Purpose: one that can work on different types if programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Special purpose: one that is designed to perform a specific task. </li></ul><p> 15. SUPER COMPUTER </p> <ul><li>The fastest type of computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer.</li></ul><ul><li>Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, , nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.</li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Expensive </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Dedicated to one purpose - weather, satellites, military</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Used by large governments or very large companies </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Can be used by thousands of people at the same time </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Very large - fill rooms </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Example: PARAM by CDAC and PACE ( Processor for Aerodynamic Computation and Evaluation ) by ANURAG ( Advanced Numerical and Analysis Group ) </li></ul><p> 16. Sixteen racks of IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer can perform 70.7 trillion calculations per second, making it the fastest machine known so far. 17. MAINFRAME </p> <ul><li>In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor. </li></ul><ul><li>As the size of computers has decreased while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.</li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Powerful and fast </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Is not limited to one job </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Used by business and small government organizations </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Example: IBM 3090/60, CDC 6600 </li></ul><ul><li>The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs simultaneously.</li></ul><p> 18. MINICOMPUTER </p> <ul><li>Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now.</li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Smaller than mainframe </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Can do several jobs at once </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Can be used by many people at one time </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Used by small companies </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Example: PDP-11, VAX </li></ul><p> 19. PERSONAL COMPUTER </p> <ul><li>The termmicrocomputer,also known as personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on a microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>A microcomputer contains a central processing unit (CPU) on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (read-only memory and random access memory), placed on a motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: desktop, notebook, laptop, handheld devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Charcteristics: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>developed in 1980 </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> designed for single user </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> not very powerful or expensive </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> found in homes </li></ul></li></ul><p> 20. EMBEDDED COMPUTER </p> <ul><li>Embedded within the circuitry of appliances such as T.V., washing machines, wrist watches, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed for a specific task. </li></ul><p> 21. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER </p> <ul><li>The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify. </li></ul><ul><li>Let us look at some of the important milestones in the evolution of computers . </li></ul><p> 22. ABACUS The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia. 23. PASCALS ADDING MACHINE </p> <ul><li>In 1642 AD, Blaise Pascal , a French mathematician invented a calculating machine named asAdding Machine . </li></ul><ul><li>This machine was capable of doing Addition and Subtraction. This device is known as theFirst Calculator of the world . </li></ul><p> 24. LEIBNITZS CALCULATOR </p> <ul><li>In 1671 AD, Gotfried Leibnitz, a German Mathematician improved the Adding machine and made a new machine capable of performing multiplication and division also. </li></ul><p> 25. BABBAGES DIFFERENCE ENGINE </p> <ul><li>Charles Babbage was a British mathematician. In 1822, he designed a machine calledDifference Engine . It aimed at calculating mathematical tables. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the technology was not so advanced at that time this machine could not be made. </li></ul><p> 26. BABBAGES ANALYTICAL ENGINE </p> <ul><li>In 1833, Charles Babbage designed a machine calledAnalytical Engine . It had almost all the parts of a modern computer. Unfortunately, this machine could not be built because of lack of technology. His designs remained a concept. </li></ul><ul><li>His great designs earned him the title of FATHER OF COMPUTERS. </li></ul><p> 27. LADY ADA </p> <ul><li>Lord Byron's daughter,Ada, CountessofLovelace , suggested to Babbage that he use the binary system in his machine. </li></ul><ul><li>She wrote programs for his analytical engine in 1840, becoming the world'sfirst computer programmer. </li></ul><p> 28. HOLLERITHS TABULATING MACHINE </p> <ul><li>Hollerith, a Mathematician, invented a fast counting machine namedTabulating Machine in 1880. </li></ul><ul><li>This machine was used by American Department of Census to complete their 1880 census data. </li></ul><p> 29. MARK I COMPUTER </p> <ul><li>Howard Aikenof Harvard University in USA joined hands with the company IBM. </li></ul><ul><li>He developed a computer namedMark I in 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>It could perform mathematical operations very fast. </li></ul><ul><li>It could performoneoperation per second. </li></ul><p> 30. ENIAC </p> <ul><li>The first electronic computerENIACwas developed in 1946 by a team lead byProfessor Eckert andMauchlyat the University of Pennsylvania in USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer(ENIAC) was very huge and very fast. </li></ul><ul><li>It could solve5000operations per second. </li></ul><p> 31. INTEL 8080 PROCESSOR </p> <ul><li>In 1974 the Intel 8080 processor was introduced - it became the basis for the first personal computers. </li></ul><p> 32. Types of Software Software ( Set of programs that govern the operations of computer ) System Software ( Software that controls internal computer operations) Application Software ( Set of programs to carry out operations for a specified application ) Operating System ( Software which acts as an interface between user and the hardware ) Language Processor ( Software which converts HLL progran into machine language ) Packages ( General utility software) Utilities ( perform house keeping) Customized Software ( Tailor made software according to users needs) 33. UTILITY SOFTWARE </p> <ul><li>Anti Virus: e.g. Notron, AVG </li></ul><ul><li>File Management tools </li></ul><ul><li>Compression tools </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Management tools ( Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup) (Disk Defragmenter speeds up disk access by rearranging the files and free space on your computer, so that the files can be stored in contiguous units and free space is consolidated in one contiguous block) </li></ul><p> 34. APPLICATION SOFTWARE ( PACKAGES ) </p> <ul><li>Word Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation tools </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet Package </li></ul><ul><li>Database Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Business Software ( ex: School Management System, Inventory Management System, Payroll System, Financial Accounting, Hotel Management, Reservation System) </li></ul><p> 35. Language Processors </p> <ul><li>Assembler:This language processor converts the program written in Assembly language into machine language. </li></ul><ul><li>Compiler:This converts HLL program into machine language inone go . After the compiler is not needed. It is removed from the memory.Therefore,better memory utilization . </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreter:This converts HLL program into machine language by converting and executing itline by line . It must be present Imemory every time program is executed. Therefore,unnecessary usage of memory . </li></ul><p>There are three types of Language Processors: 36. Generations of Computer Languages Low Level Language Fifth Generation Fourth Generation Third Generation (High Level Language) Second Generation (Assembly Language) First Generation (Machine Language) 37. FIRST GENERATION : Machine language i.e. language of 0 and 1 SECOND GENERATION : Assembly language Similar to English Uses mnemonics codes THIRD GENERATION : High Level Language Very close to English E.g. C, C++, Java, VB FOURTH GENERATION :Languages for accessing databases FIFTH GENERATION : Uses a visual or graphical developmentinterface to create source language that isusually compiled with a 3GL or 4GLlanguage compiler Used mainly inartificial intelligence research E.g.Prolog ,OPS5 , andMercury 38. Need For Operating System </p> <ul><li>To make computer system convenient to use </li></ul><ul><li>To use computer hardware in an efficient manner </li></ul><ul><li>It decides </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>How to do? </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>What to do? </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>When to do? </li></ul></li></ul><p> 39. </p> <ul><li>Processor Management: maximum utilization of CPU through multiprogramming. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Management: organizing the memory such as to store maximum data. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Contiguous storage allocation </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Non Contiguous storage allocation </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>File Management: function is to facilitate easy creation, storage and access of files in order to enable sharing of files between programs and their protection against illegal access. </li></ul><ul><li>Device Management: concerned with maximum utilisation of the I/O devices attached to the computer. </li></ul><p>Functions of Operating System 40. Types of Operating System </p> <ul><li>Single User: Allows only one user to run programs at a time. E.g. DOS. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-user (Distributed): Allow two or more users to run programs at the same time. E.g. Unix, DOS. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing: Supports running a program on more than one CPU. E.g. Unix, Windows XP, OS/2, Solaris. </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking: Allows more than one program to run concurrently. E.g. Windows XP, Unix, OS/2, Amiga, MultiFinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive (GUI): These OS are interactive in nature. I.e they provide GUI interface to facilitate easy interaction to the user. Eg. Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Time Sharing: uses time sharing technique. I.e. each active user is given a fair share of CPU time. </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time: Responds to input instantly. General purpose operating system like DOS and Unix are not real-time. E.g. CMX-RTX, CMX-TINY </li></ul><p> 41. Commonly used OS </p> <ul><li>Linux :example of: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>free software </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Open Source development ( I.e. freely openly use it, modify it an redistribute it ) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>First released...</li></ul></li></ul>