Computer- Enhanced language Learning Environments: An Overview
byJoy Egbert, Chin-Chi Chao, and Elizabeth Hanson-smithComputer- Enhanced language Learning Environments: An Overview
Need for a theory of Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) ?
Our language teaching philosophy, method, or approach needs to be broadened to encompass new technologies, and the inter- relationship between language teaching and computing needs to be carefully exploredLevy(1990)
Why ?Increase in the number of computers available to both educators and learners.
Desire of educators to apply theories of SLA to the computer using classrooms.
It could help educators evaluate how and which students learn with different kind of technology.
Language Learning Theory and the Learning EnvironmentLanguage acquisition is the result of an interplay between some kind of cognitive mechanism and environmental factors.
According to Spolosky, abilities includes physiological, biological, intellectual, and cognitive skills. Opportunity implies the learning environment or time multiplied by exposure to the language.
Conditions for Optimal Language Learning EnvironmentsLearners have opportunities to interact and negotiate meaning.Learners interact in the target language with an authentic audience.Learners are involved in authentic tasks.Learners are exposed to and encourage to produce varied and creative language.Learners have enough time and feedbackLearners are guided to attend mindfully to the learning process.Learners work in an atmosphere with an ideal stress/anxiety level.Learners autonomy is supported.
1Learners are have opportunities to interact and negotiate meaning.
Learning is essentially the result of interaction between learners and others.
If learning is a social process, then interaction with other people is necessary.
2Learners interact in the target language with an authentic audience
Learners must be involved not only in social interaction but in purposeful interaction..
3Learners are involved in authentic tasks.
not only real audience but also an authentic goal for their work, and in this context the language used tends to be candid and heartfelt.
4 Learners are exposed to and encourage to produce varied and creative language.
Learners tap both receptive and productive language skills and that the tasks take into account the multiple learning style and preference among learners
5 Learners have enough time and feedback
Within the classroom, individual differences in ability, motivation, and other factors determine how much time each learner requires to complete task successfully.
6Learners are guided to attend mindfully to the learning process.
They must be motivated to take opportunities presented to them and to be cognitively engaged as they perform them.
7Learners work in an atmosphere with an ideal stress/anxiety level.
Educators can assist in the development of an environment with an optimal stress level by creating a learner-centered classroom.
8 Learner autonomy is supported.
develops confidence and skill to learn autonomously and to design and coordinates tasks in variety of context
Exploring the CALL Environment Through Research
How can uncover ways to meet the eight conditions for learning in our own setting ?
1- Ask the right questions2- Review the literature3- State a hypothesis4- Determine how to test the research question5- Gather data6- Refine your answer.