Combining apples and oranges? synthesizing quantitative and qualitative data from EcoZD studies

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Presentation by Silvia Alonso, Sokerya Seng, Nguyen Ngoc Thuy and Jeff Gilbert at the First African Regional Conference of the International Association on Ecology and Health (Africa 2013 Ecohealth), Grand-Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire, 1-5 October 2013.

Text of Combining apples and oranges? synthesizing quantitative and qualitative data from EcoZD studies

  • 1. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Combining apples and oranges? Synthesizing quantitative and qualitative data from EcoZD studies SilviaAlonso1,SengSokerya2,NguyenNgocThuy3andJeffGilbert1 1. InternationalLivestockResearch Institute,ILRI 2. CentreforAgriculture&Livestock DevelopmentCambodia(CelAgrid), PhnomPenh,Cambodia 3. NongLamUniversity,HoChiMinh, Vietnam

2. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies EcoHealthresearch: Multidisciplinarity Holisticapproaches Participation EcoZDallthistobeappliedtoinvestigation ofazoonoticdiseasetransmissionproblem 2 3. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Quicklysaid 3 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies Qualitative research: Participatory rural appraisals (PRA) Focus group discussions (FGD) Quantitative research: Observational studies Randomized clinical trials but Summary report Statistical analysis 4. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Mixedmethodresearch intentionallyintegrateorcombinequantitativeandqualitativedatato maximizethestrengthsofeach,toanswerquestionsthatare inadequatelyansweredbyoneapproach.(OzawaandPongpirul,2013) itallowsresearcherstoviewproblemsfrommultipleperspectives, contextualizeinformation,developamorecompleteunderstandingofa problem,triangulateresults,quantifyhardtomeasureconstructs, provideillustrationsofcontextfortrends,examineprocesses/experiences alongwithoutcomesandcaptureamacropictureofasystem. (OzawaandPongpirul,2013) Increasingliteraturemixedmethodsasadistinctresearchapproach EcoHealthtoengageandcontribute!!! 4 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies 5. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Whatdomixedmethodscontribute?: Complementarityonetypeofdataillustrates/explains findingsontheother Developmentonetypeofdatainformstheuseofthe othermethod Initiationidentifyareasofincongruencetogenerate newinsights/researchquestions Expansioneachmethodsuitedtoexploredifferent aspectofaresearchquestion Triangulationcorroboratefindings 5 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies 6. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Livestockkeepingandacutediarrheain Cambodia 6 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies 2 Provinces 4 Districts 8 villages Quantitativemethods (questionnaireandbiologicalsampling) Evidenceandinvestigateriskfactors forzoonotictransmission Qualitativemethods(PRAandFGD) capturesocioeconomicaspectslinked todiseaseoccurrenceandspread Numerical outputreport Summaryof observations 7. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant 7 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies Quantitativemethods (questionnaireandbiologicalsampling) 400Householdsreportingdiarrheainpast2 weeks Questionnaireonhouseholdcharacteristics, foodconsumptionandhygienepractices Fecalsamplesdiarrheacases Fecalsamplescattle/pig/chicken Tests:Salmonellaspp,E.coli0157,Shigella spp,Plesiomonas,Aeromonas,Vibriospp Qualitativemethods(PRAandFGD) Ineachvillage: Villagelayout(map) 45villagersinterviewed Householdlayout Seasonalcalendar:production,water availabilityandillness Livelihoodmapping Wealthranking 8. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant 8 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies Biological samples: Human cases - Shigella spp and E. coli 0157 (most isolations in high bloody diarrhea incidence areas) Animals E. coli 0157 and Salmonella spp (only in high bloody diarrhea incidence areas) No correlation with pathogen presence in household animals Questionnaire: Animal raising practices similar across study sites Risk factor analysis: suggests raising animals / pig-cattle consumption are NOT risk factors. Duck/fish consumption potential RF. Eating sick animals, vegetables, use surface/lake water 9. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant 9 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies Participatory rural appraisal: Sickness - Vegetables and not-boiled water. Food other than from animals!! Farmers did not consume meat from their animals! (market). Obvious HH distribution in village associated with wealth. Different animal raising practices according to season - not captured in the QUANTI study. Chemicals mentioned often, neglected in QUANTI study. 10. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant Helpmakesenseofhardtoexplainquantitativefindings Capturescomplexity Helpdesigntheresearchquestion Wateridentifiedaspotentialimportantsource(QUALI)QUANTItoexploremoreindetail Identifyingtheproblem Getacquaintedwiththecontext Informparticipantsaboutstudy Guidedesignofintervention/controlstrategies Goodcomplementofsmallstudies 10 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies 11. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant CONCLUDINGREMARKS: EcoHealthresearchersneedtoexpandinterest/skills onmixedmethods(formalapproaches) Needtoacknowledgethereasonwhyqualitativeand quantitativeresearchmethodsareneeded choosethemethodthatsuitbest,maybeyoudont needmixedmethods!!! Ifneeded:incorporateexplicitlyinprojectDESIGN: howtodo,howtoanalysis,howtointegratedata 11 Combiningapplesandoranges?Synthesizingquantitativeand qualitativedatafromEcoZDstudies 12. ConfrenceinternationaleAfrica2013surlEcosant 12