Cog lifespan 5 cognitive (1)

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  • 1. Lifespan Development Cognitive development

2.

  • Piaget was a Swiss psychologist whodevised ingenious procedures for examining the cognitive development of young children
  • Piaget studied when and how children gained insights into the world
  • Piaget focused on how people think instead of what they think

3. Cognitive change

  • Schemes psychological structure of making sense of experience
  • Adaptation process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
    • Assimilation: using current schemes to interpret external world
    • Accommodation: create or modify schemes to handle the environment that is not completely captured
  • Organisation internal process of rearranging and linking schemes to create strongly interconnected cognitive system

4. Central concepts

  • A schema is an organized way of interacting with the environment and experiencing the world
  • Schemata guide thoughts based on prior experiences

5. Central concepts

  • Schemas can change through adaptation, assimilation, and accommodation
  • Accommodation is when a child discovers that actions bring results, and those results affect future behaviour
  • Schemata are organized into more complex mental representations

6. Central concepts

  • In assimilation, new ideas and experiences are incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviours
  • In accommodation, previously developed mental structures and behaviours (schemata) are modified to adapt them to new experiences

7. 8. Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development a = accommodation/assimilation; f = flaw Sensorimotor 0 2 years Imitation, permanence (a) Preoperational 2 7 years Egocentrism (f), centration (f), irreversibility (f) Concrete Op 7 11 years Decentration (a), conservation (a) Formal Op 11+Abstract reasoning 9.

  • Piaget proposed four invariant stages of development
  • Newborns are dependent, reflexive organisms
  • At 2 to 3 months, infants develop memory for past events
  • The sensorimotor stage extends from birth to age 2

10. I: Sensorimotor Stage

  • The first stage, comprising six sub-stages
    • Reflexive schemes
    • Primary circular reactions
    • Secondary circular reactions
    • Coordination of secondary circular reactions
    • Tertiary circular reactions
    • Mental representations

11. i) Reflexive schemes

  • Birth 1 month
  • Infant activity are largely reflexive
  • Understanding of environment is based on reflex action
    • Sucking
    • Looking around
    • Startle

12. ii) Primary circular reactions

  • 1 4 months
  • Coordinating sensation and new schemas
    • Accidental action
    • Sensation of pleasure
    • Intentional repetition of the action
  • Coordination of sensation and two types of schemes: habits (reflex) and primary circular reactions (reproduction of an event that initially occurred by chance)
  • Main focus is on infant's body.

13. iii) Secondary circular reactions

  • 4 8 months
  • Infant becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment.
  • Development of habits.
  • Infants are more object-oriented, moving beyond self-preoccupation; repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results

14. iv) Coordination ofsecondary circular reactions

  • 8 12 month
  • Combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect
  • Exploration and imitation
  • Understanding of objects children begin to recognise certain objects as having specific qualities
  • Coordination of vision and touch hand-eye coordination;
  • Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences. Actions take on an "intentional" character

15. v) Tertiary circular reactions

  • 12 18 months
  • Trial-and-error experimentation
  • Infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects; they experiment with new behaviour.

16. vi) Mental representations

  • 18 24 months
  • Early Representational Thought through Mental Combination
  • Develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world
  • Evidence of an internal representational system. Symbolising the problem-solving sequence before actually responding. Deferred imitation.

17. Cognitive achievements

  • Object permanence
  • Intentionality of actions
  • Awareness of properties of objects
  • Imitation

Attainment of these four cognitive skills will mark the end of the sensorimotor stage, whereby the child will then move into the next stage 18. Object permanence

  • Ability of the brain to retain and utilise visual images.
  • Object permanence is the understanding that objects exist even when out of sight, w hereby the child recognises that although the person or object is not within sight, it still exists
  • Often handled approximately eight (8) months
  • In the second half of the sensorimotor stage, children begin to use language to represent the world

19. The preoperational child

  • The preoperational stage lasts from about age 2 to age 6 or 7
  • In this stage, children represent reality throughsymbolic thought

20. Limitations of preoperational thought

  • Egocentricism: failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from own view
  • Centration: focusing on only one attribute
  • Animistic thinking: belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities
  • Conservation: certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes

The turning point! 21. Piagets Mountains Study

  • To investigate egocentrism
  • Three 3-D mountains
  • Ask child to indicate which view he thought E saw from E position

Plaster model make-up E C Younger child answer Older child answer 22. The preoperational child

  • Centration is the tendency for preoperational children to become focused on one salient dimension at the expense of others
  • e.g.show them five black and three white marbles and ask them Are there more marbles or more black marbles? they will respond More black ones! evidencing they centred on colour

23. The preoperational child

  • Animistic Thinking is the attribution of intentions to objects or events

e.g. the chair was afraid of me so it moved away 24. Preoperational stage

  • Dramatic increase in use of symbols, representations
  • Children had many internal experiences which were labelled with words by the child
  • By observing childrens make believe play, able to get an idea of childs inner world

25. Make believe play in preschool years

  • Detaches from real life conditions associated with it
  • Play becomes less self centred
  • Play includes more complex combinations of schemes
  • Sociodramatic play indicates awareness that make believe play is representational activity

26. Symbol-real world relations

  • Preschoolers realise that each symbol corresponds with a specific state of affairs in daily life.
  • When does this happen?
  • 2 - 3year olds before children start to realise that a symbolic object is both an object and a symbol (dual representation)

27. Limitations

  • Centration: focusing on only one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
  • Irreversibility: inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem then reverse direction, returning to starting point
  • Lacking hierarchical classification: difficulty to organise objects into classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences

Mastering these three is the point at which the child will learn to conserve 28. The concrete operational child

  • The concrete operational stage lasts from the age of about 6 / 7 to 11 / 12
  • In this stage, the child develops the ability to understand constant factors in the environment
  • The concrete operational child understands rules and the reasons for them

29. The concrete operational child

  • A hallmark of the concrete stage is understanding conservation
  • Conservation is recognising that objects can be transformed visually or physically, yet still be the same in number, weig

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