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Blog - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Blog (disambiguation).JournalismNewsWriti...

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Blog - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Blog (disambiguation). JournalismNewsWritingstyleEthicsObjectivityValuesAttributionDefamationEditorial independenceJournalism schoolIndex ofjournalismarticlesAreasArtsBusinessDataEntertainmentEnvironmentFashionMedicinePoliticsScienceSportsTechnologyTradeTrafficWeatherWorldGenresAdvocacyAnalyticBloggingBroadcastCitizenCivicCollaborativeComics-basedCommunityDatabaseGonzoImmersionInvestigativeLiteraryMuckrakingNarrative"NewJournalism"Non-profitOnlineOpinionPeacePhotojournalismScientificVisualWatchdogSocialimpactFourth EstateFreedom of the pressInfotainmentMedia biasPublic relationsPressservicePropaganda modelYellow journalismNews mediaNewspapersMagazinesTV andradioInternetNews agenciesAlternative mediaRolesJournalists(reporters)ColumnistBloggerEditorCopy editorMeteorologistPresenter (news)PhotographerPundit /commentatorCategory: JournalismvteA blog (a truncation of the expression web log)[1] is a discussion or informational site published onthe World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reversechronological order (the most recent post appears first). Until 2009 blogs were usually the work of asingle individual, occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject. More recently"multi-author blogs" (MABs) have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors andprofessionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanks,advocacy groups and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The riseof Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs intosocietal newstreams. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.

The emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishingtools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users. (Previously, a knowledge of suchtechnologies as HTML and FTP had been required to publish content on the Web.)

A majority are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via GUIwidgets on the blogs, and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites.[2]In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do notonly produce content to post on their blogs, but also build social relations with their readers andother bloggers.[3] There are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments, such as DaringFireball.

Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject; others function as more personal onlinediaries; others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. Atypical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related toits topic. The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an importantcontribution to the popularity of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focuson art (art blogs), photographs (photoblogs), videos (video blogs or "vlogs"), music (MP3 blogs), andaudio (podcasts). Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts. In education,blogs can be used as instructional resources. These blogs are referred to as edublogs.

On 16 February 2011[update], there were over 156 million public blogs in existence.[4] On 13October 2012, there were around 77 million Tumblr[5] and 56.6 million WordPress[6] blogs inexistence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging

service used today.[7][8]

Contents1 History1.1 Origins1.2 Rise in popularity1.3 Political impact1.4 Mainstream popularity2Types3 Community and cataloging4 Popularity5 Blurring with the mass media6 Consumer-generatedadvertising in blogs7 Legal and social consequences7.1 Defamation or liability7.2 Employment7.3Political dangers7.4 Personal safety7.5 Behavior8 See also9 References10 Further reading11External links

History Early example of a "diary" style blog consisting of text andimages transmitted wirelessly in real time from a wearable computer with head-up display, 22February 1995Main articles: History of blogging and online diaryThe term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger[9] on 17 December 1997. The short form, "blog", wascoined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebarof his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999.[10][11][12] Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at PyraLabs used "blog" as both a noun and verb ("to blog", meaning "to edit one's weblog or to post toone's weblog") and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product,leading to the popularization of the terms.[13]

OriginsBefore blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms, including Usenet,commercial online services such as GEnie, BiX and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists[14] andBulletin Board Systems (BBS). In the 1990s, Internet forum software, created running conversationswith "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard".

From 14 June 1993 Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What's New"[15] list ofnew websites, updated daily and archived monthly. The page was accessible by a special "What'sNew" button in the Mosaic web browser.

The modern blog evolved from the online diary, where people would keep a running account of theirpersonal lives. Most such writers called themselves diarists, journalists, or journalers. Justin Hall,who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is generallyrecognized as one of the earlier bloggers,[16] as is Jerry Pournelle.[17]Dave Winer's Scripting Newsis also credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs.[18][19] The AustralianNetguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News[20] on their web site from 1996. Daily Net Newsran links and daily reviews of new websites, mostly in Australia. Another early blog was WearableWireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, video, andpictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994. Thispractice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as

sousveillance, and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters.

Early blogs were simply manually updated components of common Web sites. However, theevolution of tools to facilitate the production and maintenance of Web articles posted in reversechronological order made the publishing process feasible to a much larger, less technical,population. Ultimately, this resulted in the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs werecognize today. For instance, the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typicalaspect of "blogging". Blogs can be hosted by dedicated blog hosting services, or they can be runusing blog software, or on regular web hosting services.

Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997, actually referred to theironline presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage.

Rise in popularityAfter a slow start, blogging rapidly gained in popularity. Blog usage spread during 1999 and theyears following, being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the first hosted blogtools:Bruce Ableson launched Open Diary in October 1998, which soon grew to thousands of onlinediaries. Open Diary innovated the reader comment, becoming the first blog community wherereaders could add comments to other writers' blog entries.Brad Fitzpatrick started LiveJournal inMarch 1999.Andrew Smales created Pitas.com in July 1999 as an easier alternative to maintaining a"news page" on a Web site, followed by Diaryland in September 1999, focusing more on a personaldiary community.[21]Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan (Pyra Labs) launched Blogger.com in August1999 (purchased by Google in February 2003)

Political impactSee also: Political blog On 6 December 2002, JoshMarshall's talkingpointsmemo.com blog called attention to U.S. Senator Lott's comments regardingSenator Thurmond. Senator Lott was eventually to resign his Senate leadership position over thematter.An early milestone in the rise in importance of blogs came in 2002, when many bloggers focused oncomments by U.S. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott.[22] Senator Lott, at a party honoring U.S.Senator Strom Thurmond, praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the United States wouldhave been better off had Thurmond been elected president. Lott's critics saw these comments as atacit approval of racial segregation, a policy advocated by Thurmond's 1948 presidential campaign.

This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers. (See JoshMarshall's Talking Points Memo.) Though Lott's comments were made at a public event attended bythe media, no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogsbroke the story. Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as majorityleader.

Similarly, blogs were among the driving forces behind the "Rathergate" scandal. To wit: (televisionjournalist) Dan Rather presented documents (on the CBS show 60 Minutes) that conflicted withaccepted accounts of President Bush's military service record. Bloggers declared the documents tobe forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view. Consequently, CBSapologized for what it said were inadequate reporting techniques (see Little Green Footballs). Manybloggers view this scandal as the advent of blogs' acceptance by the mass media, both as a newssource and opinion and as means of applying political press

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