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Text of Biotechnology

  • 1. Biotechnology A process that uses bacteria or other microorganisms to create a product for industry

2. Restriction Enzymes

  • Viruses embed their DNA into bacteria using restriction enzymes.
  • Bacteria need to cut out viral DNA in self defense.
  • Bacteria use restriction enzymes as defense against viruses.

Image of rhinovirus 3. Blunt end cuts ATTCGTACTTTCGTA TAAGCATG AAAGC AT 4. Blunt end cuts VIRUS!! 5. Sticky end cuts ATTGAATTCTTGG CTTAACTTAAGAA CCG A 6. Action of Restriction Enzyme VIRUS ! 7. Close-up of infected DNA What if this section of DNA is viral DNA instead of bacterial? 8. Bacterial defense

  • Bacteria cut out the viral DNA using the same enzymes that the virus uses to embed the DNA.

9. How industry uses restriction enzymes GENE X Insert Gene X into bacteria Use bacteria to make copies of Gene X 10. How to isolate gene of interest GENE Restriction enzyme site Restriction enzyme site 11. Cutting the gene out tube of restriction enzyme tube of DNA 12. Preparing bacteria PLASMID Cut the bacteria with the same restriction enzyme used to cut out the gene of interest 13. Subcloning gene of interest GENE 14. Cloning gene of interest Allow bacteria to grow 15. Obtaining gene from bacteria

  • Cut bacterial DNA with restriction enzyme again.
  • Load cut DNA into gel for separation.

16. Pouring gel 17. Loading gel 18. Setting voltage gradient 19. Isolating gene Each band represents DNA pieces of different sizes.One of these bands should have the gene of interest. 20. Sample gel ofSalmonella 21. Paternity test 22. Sickle cell anemia 23. Gels show relationship

  • Gel electrophoresis, restriction enzymes, and biotechnology are helping scientists establish genetic relationships between different species.

24. In what ways can this technology help or hurt man?