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Biotech 2011-03-prokaryotic-genes

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  • 1.8 Microbial Genetics


  • Genetics: The study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated.
  • Gene: A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein.

Terminology 3.

  • Genome: All of the genetic material in a cell
  • Genomics: The molecular study of genomes
  • Genotype: The genes of an organism
  • Phenotype: Expression of the genes

Terminology 4. E. coli Figure 8.1a 5. Chromosome Map Figure 8.1b 6. Flow of Genetic Information Figure 8.2 7. DNA

  • Polymer of nucleotides: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine
  • Double helix associated with proteins
  • "Backbone" is deoxyribose-phosphate
  • Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG.
  • Strands are antiparallel.

Figure 8.3b 8. DNA Figure 8.3a 9. DNA Figure 8.4 10. DNA

  • DNA is copied by DNA polymerase
    • In the 5'3' direction
    • Initiated by an RNA primer
    • Leading strand is synthesized continuously
    • Lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously
    • Okazaki fragments
    • RNA primers are removed and Okazaki fragments joined by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase

11. Important Enzymes Table 8.1 12. DNA Replication Figure 8.5 13. DNA

  • DNA replication is semiconservative.

Figure 8.6 14. Transcription

  • DNA is transcribed to make RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA).
  • Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promotor sequence
  • Transcription proceeds in the 5'3' direction
  • Transcription stops when it reaches the terminator sequence

PLAY Animation: DNA Replication 15. Transcription Figure 8.7 (1 of 2) 16. Transcription PLAY Animation:Transcription Figure 8.7 (2 of 2) 17. RNA processing in Eukaryotes Figure 8.11

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