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BIO3.2 Biodiesel Fuel Quality

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National Biodiesel Board's Diesel Technician Training Program: BIO3.2 Biodiesel Fuel Quality

Text of BIO3.2 Biodiesel Fuel Quality

  • Biodiesel Technical Training Course

    BIO3.2:Biodiesel Fuel Quality

    Presented by the National Biodiesel Board

  • ASTMAmerican Society of Testing & Materials Biodiesel Specifications and Fuel Quality

    *

  • Learning Objectives

    Provide instruction on diesel fuel propertiesProvide instruction on biodiesel fuel propertiesProvide instruction on how these properties affect fuel quality and fuel filtrationProvide information on the BQ-9000 programProvide access to industry experts for more detailed questions and answers about biodieselIntroduce the National Biodiesel Boards Diesel Technician Training program and the program resources to the audience

  • Learning Outcomes

    Be able to identify key ASTM diesel fuel quality parametersBe able to identify key ASTM biodiesel fuel quality parameters Be able to describe how these properties affect fuel quality and fuel filtrationBe able to explain the importance of biodiesel fuel quality and the BQ-9000 program Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit the shop

  • Biodiesel DefinedBiodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100.

    Biodiesel Blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.This tight definition was needed in order to secure vehicle, engine and fuel injection equipment company support for biodiesel, as well as to secure ASTM specs

  • Biodiesel (B100) AttributesHigh Cetane (avg. over 50)Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm)High Lubricity, even in blends as low as 1-2%High Energy Balance (4.5 to 1)Renewable, Sustainable, Domestically ProducedIncreases overall fuel production capacity in USA Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines

  • ASTM Standards for BiodieselASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for blending up to B20, in effect since 2001Performance-based standard: Feedstock and Process Neutral47 states have now legislatively adopted the ASTM D6751 specifications for biodieselD975 Covers petrodiesel and blends up to 5% biodiesel maximum for on/off road engines D7467 Covers blends containing 6% to 20% biodiesel for on/off road engines 47 States have adopted ASTM D6751 into law

    *Biodiesel Specifications

  • BQ-9000 ProgramBiodiesel Industrys equivalent to an ISO 9000 program for biodiesel production & distribution companies as well as testing labsBQ-9000 works hand-in-hand with the ASTM specifications for biodieselQuality Control System covers biodiesel manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage, shipping, distributionASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 CompaniesMany OEMs are now either requiring or strongly encouraging BQ-9000*

  • Quality, Quality, QualityB100 must meet D 6751 prior to blending to insure trouble-free use of B20 and lower blends

    BQ-9000 fuel quality program helps to promote high quality fuel from producers and marketers

    B20 and lower blends are recommended since most of the research and successful use of the fuel has been with these blendsSee NBB Toolkit document Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20 for more information

    Blends over B20 require special precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced usersSee NBB document Guidance on Biodiesel Blends Above B20 for more information: http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Use_of_Biodiesel_Blends_above_%2020.pdf

  • Why care about biodiesel quality?Off specification biodiesel can cause engine operability problemsQuality is critical to continue to grow the industryThere is NO room for off-specification fuelCustomers need to receive consistent quality from lot to lot, batch to batchMust be on-spec for tax credit and to be legal fuel

  • SummaryBiodiesel production reviewKey elements in ASTM Specifications and Standard Test MethodsASTM Specification D 6751 11, the specification of B100 (biodiesel) fuel is described in detail.Key properties of B 100 are discussed in terms of their tests and specifications.Alternative testing proceduresOther issues affecting fuel quality

  • Review of the Production ProcessBiodiesel is produced by a chemical reaction between methanol (or ethanol) and an oil or fat, in the presence of a catalyst.Requires a strong basic catalyst (NaOH or KOH)The reaction is called Transesterification Changing one ester (vegetable oil) into another ester (biodiesel)

    Oil + Alcohol yields Biodiesel + Glycerol

  • Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction)Fatty Acid ChainGlycerolMethanol (or Ethanol)One triglyceride molecule is converted into three mono alkyl ester (biodiesel) moleculesBiodieselTriglyceride

  • Potential Impurities: in BiodieselMethanol Degrades some plastics and elastomers, corrosive; Can lower flashpoint to unsafe levels (fire safety) Unconverted/partly converted oils (bound glycerin) Results in very poor cold flow properties, injector and in-cylinder deposits, potential engine failure Free Glycerin Results in injector deposits, clogged fuel filters, deposit at bottom of fuel storage tank Catalyst (caustic, NaOH) Excessive injector, fuel pump, piston, and ring wear, filter plugging, issues with lubricant All are limited by ASTM D6751 specification

  • ASTM Standards for BiodieselASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for blending up to B20, since 2001Performance-based standard: Feedstock and Process NeutralD975 Add up to 5% biodiesel in Petrodiesel D396 Add up to 5% biodiesel in Heating OilD7467 New standard for on/off road blends of B6 to B20

  • B100 Blending Component Specification

    Major steps forward for passage of biodiesel blend specificationsCritical for obtaining OEM approvalCritical for ensuring that biodiesel performs as advertised so market can grow

  • ASTM D7467: B6-B20 Blend Specification

  • Impact of Blended SpecsMore large fleets are using B20Nearly 55% of OEMs in the U.S. now support B20 or higher blends in at least some of their equipmentBiodiesel blends are the only non-petroleum diesel substitute to have officially sanctioned ASTM specificationsQuality is further improved, fuel specs can be enforced by regulatory bodies (supported by NBB)Biodiesel companies have made process changes in order to meet D6751

  • Biodiesel Pump LabelingNo Label Required:Fuel blends containing no more than five percent biodiesel and no more than 5 percent biomass-based diesel and that meet ASTM D975.

    Labels Required:Fuel blends containing more than five but no more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based diesel.Fuel blends containing more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based diesel.

    Separate Labels for Biodiesel (Blue Labels) and Biomass-Based Diesel (Orange Labels)

  • BQ-9000 Fuel Quality Program

  • BQ-9000 ProgramBiodiesel Industrys equivalent to an ISO 9000 program for biodiesel production & distribution companies as well as testing labsBQ-9000 works hand-in-hand with the ASTM specifications for biodieselQuality Control System covers biodiesel manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage, shipping, distributionASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 Companies

  • BQ-9000 StatusSince 2005, there has been a substantial increase in interest in the NBBs BQ-9000 Quality ProgramThere are now three BQ-9000 designations:Producer (make it to spec)Marketer (buy spec, keep it in spec, blend it right)Certified Laboratories (test it to ensure it is in spec)We now have 60 total companies BQ-9000 certified (37 producers, 23 marketers)75-80% of the biodiesel volume in the U.S. is now made by BQ-9000 producers, and more certifications are in process Many OEMs are now either requiring or strongly encouraging BQ-9000

    UPDATE THESE NUMBERS

  • 2004 B100 Quality SurveyUnder guidance of B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (OEMs, NREL, NBB)Samples obtained nationwide from biodiesel blenders (27 samples)85% of samples tested met the ASTM D6751 specificationFour samples failed with high levels of:phosphorus (lube oil contamination?)total glycerinacid numberacid number and total glycerin

  • 2006 Quality surveyA subcontractor visited the site of a biodiesel blender, usually a terminal operator or jobber, to collect the B100 sample32 B100s, 6 B99s, and 1 B5059% of B100 samples tested fail the D6751 specificationImportantly, 30% fail total glycerin immediate operational problems in cold weatherOther issue of concern is 20% failure rate for Na+KCompares to 15% failure rate in 2004 surveySamples were collected randomly, not on production volume basis Biodiesel, based on production volume, may have different failure rate Poor quality batch may have contaminated larger fuel lot

  • 2007 B100 Quality SurveyCollect B100 samples directly from producers and analyze for properties most likely to impact engine performance and emission control systemsFlash point, oxidation stability, acid value, free and total glycerin, cloud point, Na+K, Ca+Mg, P, water & sedimentFirst survey that will link test results to production volumeResults presented at recent NBB meeting

  • Survey Results56 out of 107 producers participated in 2007 survey or 70% of the 2007 US market Reasons for not participating are likely due to lack of feedstock availability Wide variety of feedstocks represented Meeting the specification is independent of producer size or feedstock Small producers failed specifications more often than medium or large producers Small producers: 28% of samples passed Medium producers: 68% of samples passed Large producers: 94% of samples passed

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