Andreea Dicu (slide design) Carmen Neghina Probably my best presentation so far. An insider's view into advertising.
Advertising7/3/2009Advertising Psychology2Agenda7/3/2009Advertising Psychology3Advertising revealedAdvertising tacticsElaboration Likelihood ModelCommunication Model/Techniques1) Who say?2) What?3) By what means?4) To whom?Methods of measuring advertising effectsTrends and future developmentsAdvertising RevealedInnovativeFunHard WorkWhat do you think about advertising?CreativeDeceptiveAggressiveNon-PersonalSponsorMass Media What is advertising in theory?Large AudiencePaid form of communicationPersuasiveDefinition of advertisingAdvertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.(Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003, p. 10)An advertising idea is a credible and provocative statement of substance about the brands main consumer benefit.7/3/20097Advertising PsychologyMajor objectives7/3/20098Advertising PsychologyEffects of advertising7/3/2009Advertising Psychology9Unique Selling PropositionA motivating idea, uniquely associated with a particular brand, which is to be registered in the mind of the consumerThe U.S.P. is about uniquenessmust sellmust make a proposition7/3/200910Advertising PsychologyUnique Selling PropositionIn best cases our brand or product is unique in itself or is determined to be something unique for a special target groupCan you give examples?Coca colaPorsche Rolex 7/3/200911Advertising PsychologyUnique Selling Proposition7/3/2009Advertising Psychology12UniqueAdvertising that promises a unique benefit,or a benefit that is perceived as distinct and/or superiorPropositionA clear, compellingconsumer benefit that isdelivered by the productSellingSignificant and relevant to consumers - persuasiveenough to incite actionUnique Selling Proposition7/3/2009Advertising Psychology13Uniquetaste, shape, color, different flavorsPropositionThe Becks experienceSellingBottles, cans & kegs Brand Wheel7/3/2009Advertising Psychology14What the brand is / what the brand looks like: Physical/functional characteristics of the brandRational advantage for me. What the brand does: The results of using the brand.Psychological advantage of using the brand: How the brand makes me feel about myself / how others feel about me, using the brandIf the brand were a person:How would it be?Brand Essence: The core of the brand.The sum of characteristics in the wheel.AttributesBenefitsValuesPersonalityBrand EssenceBrand Wheel7/3/2009Advertising Psychology15German, Masculine, Luxury, Expensive,well-engineered. Quality, Performance,Roadholding, Heritage, Bssssssing!Sports performance in luxury comfort,Best of both worlds. Is what it doesWise heads on young shouldersA passionate driverSerious but not serious-minded, charismatic, outgoing, joie de vivre,half german, half human. The steel fist in a velvet gloveAttributesBenefitsValuesPersonalityBrand EssenceDRIVING EXCELLENCEAdvertising TacticsA framework of psychological meaning7/3/2009Advertising Psychology17Attribute BundlePerceptual ModeContextTangible Attributese.g. size color brightness musicData drivene.g. sight touch soundIndividual characteristicse.g. attitudes perceptual selectivity personalityPsychological MeaningStimuluse.g. TV ad Billboard Image adSocial characteristicse.g. gender social class marital status occupationIntangible Attributese.g. modern fun excitingConcept Drivene.g. cognitive associations cognitive abstractionsSituational characteristicse.g. time to make decision number of available choicesElaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)Implies two routes to persuasion:Consumers that are motivated and able to process the message will devote more thought to the message contained in advertisementelaborationAttitude change depends on the quality of the argumentsConsumers that are not motivated and/or unable to process the message will switch to a less involved and elaborate processing of informationAttitude change depends on the peripheral cuesCentral route to persuasionPeripheral route to persuasion7/3/200918Advertising PsychologyExamples of peripheral cuescelebrityattractive sourcesources with high credibility expert sourceshumorerotic stimuli7/3/200919Advertising PsychologyElaboration Likelihood ModelMotivationto process the message can be influenced bypersonal relevance of the productneed for cognition (a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful analytic activity)personal responsibilityAbility to process the message can be influenced bydistractionprior knowledgeintelligencemessage comprehensibility7/3/200920Advertising PsychologyElaboration Likelihood Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology21Consequences of elaborationCentral route to persuasionPeripheral route to persuasionrelatively enduring / shows a greater temporal persistencemore predictive of behaviorshows a greater resistance to counter-persuasion less enduring / relatively temporaryunpredictive of behavior shows a greater susceptibility to counter-persuasionAttitude changeCommunication ModelWho?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication ModelSource characteristics1) CredibilityLowercredibility sources - when the receivers thoughts about the product are favorableHigher credibility sources when the receivers thoughts are negativeProfession has a greater effect upon perceived credibility than the spokesperson2) Attractiveness3) Gender7/3/2009Advertising Psychology23Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication ModelSource characteristics1) Credibility2) AttractivenessFor low involvement products coffee, perfumeAttractive models do not enhance recall, but facilitate ad recognition3) Gender7/3/2009Advertising Psychology24Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology25SourceCredibilityAttractivenessGender7/3/2009Advertising Psychology26SourceCredibilityAttractivenessGenderCommunication ModelSource characteristics1) Credibility2) Attractiveness3) GenderGender of models should match the image of the product held by usersAny role depiction should be realistic and natural rather than stereotypical and false7/3/2009Advertising Psychology27Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology28SourceCredibilityAttractivenessGenderCommunication ModelWho?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology30Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Message appeal - the overall style of the advertisingRational appeal?Emotional appeal?One- vs. two- sided and comparative appeals?Communication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology31Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?The MAC ModelMemory only most of the choices we make are determined by habitMemory plus affect most of the conscious choices that make us pause are determined by affectMemory plus affect plus cognition some ads make us think, as well as do some decisionAdsMemoryAffectPerceptual filtersCompetitors for attentionCognitionCommunication ModelThe MAC ModelConsider a major purchase choice you made in the past. Did you use some rational basis to create a consideration set, or did you just fall in love with it when you saw it?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology32Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication ModelThe role of emotionCoca-Cola Have a Coke smilePepsi-Cola Get that Pepsi feelingGeneral Motors Get that great GM feelingAT&T Reach out and touch someoneSaab One car you can buy where your emotions arent compromised by your intellect7/3/2009Advertising Psychology33Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication ModelThe role of emotion7/3/2009Advertising Psychology34Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology35Message appealPleasure7/3/2009Advertising Psychology36Message appealArousalVitalityLiveliness7/3/2009Advertising Psychology37Message appealDominanceCommunication ModelFear appeals as arousalOptimal range of tensionPoint of inflection where increasing tension activates anxiety > negative feelings7/3/2009Advertising Psychology38Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Audio-VisualPrintAnxiety & Energy generationEnergy generationThresholdNo picturePictureTension7/3/2009Advertising Psychology39Message appealFear7/3/2009Advertising Psychology40Message appealFear7/3/2009Advertising Psychology41Message appealFear7/3/2009Advertising Psychology42Message appealFear7/3/2009Advertising Psychology43Message appealFearCommunication modelHumor appeal"Trying to figure out why something is funny is like dissecting a frog. You'll come up with answers, but the frog always dies. Mark TwainOne of the most common techniques, but hard to realizeThe belief that humor can increase advertising effectiveness has led to its unprecedented popularityHowever, it can work for you or it can work against you!Peripheral cue - drawing attention to the ad7/3/2009Advertising Psychology44Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology45Message appealHumor7/3/2009Advertising Psychology46Message appealHumorCommunication ModelSubliminal Messagesthe use of hidden or otherwise imperceptible stimuli to manipulate viewers or listeners to behave in ways they otherwise would not.The Vicary Eat Popcorn/Drink Coke StudyBelow thresholdSubjective thresholdObjective threshold7/3/2009Advertising Psychology47Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication ModelWho?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology49Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology50Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?1) Copy themeSurface level TextDifferent ads using the same kinds of techniques (characters, jingles)Underlying level TextSignification system structured around connatative signifiedCommunication Model1) Copy themeUse of figurative language and rhetorical devices7/3/2009Advertising Psychology51Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication Model2) Visual representationsWhat visual images express can only be approximated by words, but never fully captured by them. Words represent an artificially imposed intellectual system removed from primal feeling; images plunge us into the depth of experience itself. (Barry, 75)7/3/2009Advertising Psychology52Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?Communication Model2) Visual representations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology53Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology54Attracting attentionViolating reality Communication Model2) Visual representations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology55Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology56Attracting attentionVisual Metaphor 7/3/2009Advertising Psychology57Attracting attentionVisual Metaphor Communication Model2) Visual representations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology58Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology59Attracting attentionVisual parodies 7/3/2009Advertising Psychology60Attracting attentionVisual parodies Communication Model2) Visual representations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology61Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology62Attracting attentionDirect eye gaze Communication Model2) Visual representations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology63Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology64Eliciting EmotionVertical camera Angle, Power, and StatusCommunication Model2) Visual representations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology65Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology66Eliciting EmotionLooking down, Nurturance, SubservienceCommunication Model3) MusicAttention gaining valueAbility to engage a listeners attention through speed and loudnessRole in advertising attract and hold attentionHowever, can be act as a distractive factorMessage congruenceThe extent to which purely instrumental music conveys meanings (feelings, images, thoughts) that are congruent with those evoked by ad messages7/3/2009Advertising Psychology67Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology68Communication ModelWho?Says what?By what means?To whom?Targeting CulturesLanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural ValuesCommunication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology70Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?LinguisticsCultural Suitability7/3/2009Advertising Psychology71Targeting CulturesLinguistics7/3/2009Advertising Psychology72Targeting CulturesCultural SuitabilityTargeting CulturesLanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural ValuesCommunication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology73Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?ExplicitImplicit7/3/2009Advertising Psychology74Targeting CulturesExplicitTargeting CulturesLanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural ValuesCommunication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology75Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?ColorsNumbersColors and cultures7/3/2009Advertising Psychology76Targeting CulturesLanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural ValuesCommunication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology77Who?Says what?By what means?To whom?ReligionIndividualismMasculinity7/3/2009Advertising Psychology78Targeting CulturesReligionCommunication Model7/3/2009Advertising Psychology79Targeting CulturesUS Melting Point7/3/2009Advertising Psychology80Targeting Generations7/3/2009Advertising Psychology81USIALLRespond to:Themselves reflected in imagesFierce sarcasm/ Imagination, CreativityStupid / Smart MessagesDeconstructed ParadigmsStyleLuxury Goods and Mass MarketRespond to:Cues of achievement / Status / HeroesIconic Authority Heroes / TrailbrazersThe things that are earnedComfortIve earned it luxuryPerksAnti-AgingRespond to:New IdeasCompanies with a PhilosophyMulti-Sensory ExperiencesMulti Generational ModelsFun / LearningParents as their HeroesInteresting PeopleSenses of CommunityGEN-X(24-35)BABY BOOMERS(36-54)GEN-Y(6-23)7/3/2009Advertising Psychology82Targeting GenerationsBaby Boomers7/3/2009Advertising Psychology83Targeting GenerationsGen X7/3/2009Advertising Psychology84Targeting GenerationsGen YCommunication ModelThe consumer is not an idiot, shes your wife. - David OgilvyI heard another one: Shes not an idiot, shes your boss! - David Lubars, BBDO West7/3/2009Advertising Psychology85Targeting GendersCommunication ModelWhat do women want?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology86Targeting Genders7/3/2009Advertising Psychology87IndividualityRespectConnectionWhat Do Women Want?RelationshipStress Relief7/3/2009Advertising Psychology88Targeting GendersRespect?7/3/2009Advertising Psychology89Targeting GendersIndividualityDove Pro-Age Campaign7/3/2009Advertising Psychology90Targeting GendersStress Relief7/3/2009Advertising Psychology91Targeting GendersConnection7/3/2009Advertising Psychology92Targeting GendersRelationshipMeasuring EffectivenessAdvertising Psychology937/3/2009Why?"Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, and the trouble is I don't know which half. - John Wanamaker7/3/2009Advertising Psychology94Traditional measures of effectiveness7/3/2009Advertising Psychology95InvolvementEffectivenessAttitudes towards the adPurchase IntentionsBrand / Product / Ad recallDillemma Some commercials succeed at being memorable without managing to persuade viewers, while other are persuasive without being memorable - David. W. Stewart, David H. Furse7/3/2009Advertising Psychology96Best practice7/3/2009Advertising Psychology97Copy refinementBelow the surface explorationStrategy or copy developementDisaster checksFuture Trends in Advertising987/3/2009 Advertising PsychologyMass is back in businessGoal: reach a mass audienceFuture trends7/3/2009Advertising Psychology1007/3/2009Advertising Psychology101Questions?Thoughts?Applause?Thank you for your attention!