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  • 1.6 + 1 Traits of Writing presented by: Tina Zecca

2. 6 + 1 Traits the purpose The traits provide teachers with a shared vision andvocabulary for describing the qualities of goodwriting, these are: Ideas, Organization, Voice, WordChoice, Sentence Fluency, Conventions & Presentation They give a common language for writing assessment sowe can provide students with precise, complete feedbackon their writing performance and needs. 3. 6 + 1 Traits the purpose The traits are not a curriculum, but a framework forexamining the curriculum.The traits are an assessment tool that works with thecurriculum to guide instruction so all students can achievetheir writing goals. The traits compliment Readers and WritersWorkshops, and writing in all content areas. 4. Role of the Teacher To teach and assess all the traits ofwriting. To focus on individual needs ofstudents. To be objective evaluators of studentwriting, using the 6 + 1 traits scoringguides. 5. Role of the Student To skillfully integrate all of the traits intheir writing. To learn to see, hear, practice andinternalize the traits so they increasetheir control and confidence whenwriting. 6. Role of the Student To become problem solvers. To take responsibility for their learning. To grow in their ability to critically readtheir own, and others writing. To evaluate their own writing performance. 7. #1Ideas make up the content of a writingIDEASpiece, they are the heart of the message.Strong ideas will create a clearmessage.Students struggle with ideas because -writing is complex, students think fasterthan they can write, students often writeto please others. 8. IDEAS: Teachers must help students to:Select an idea (the topic)Narrow the idea (the focus)Develop the idea (elaboration)Add information to convey the idea (details) 9. IdeasHow can I teach students the ideas trait?1. Free Ideas: Free writing, flashback, favorite places (helping students look for experiences and ideas that matter to them)2. Picture This: Students analyze art out of context, in small pieces, then finally analyze the entire piece at once3. It Happened to Me: Teacher modeling of a detailed oral telling, to a simple outline, to an embellished outline 10. # 2 ORGANIZATION of theOrganization is the internal structurewriting, the thread of central meaning, thepattern of logic.Organization and ideas go hand in hand.Students need meaty ideas that can begrouped logically to form abeginning, middle and end..No single program will solve ourorganizationalwoes.Students struggle with organizationbecause rigid organization is oftenovervalued. 11. ORGANIZATION:Teachers must help students to: Write an inviting introduction that getsthe reader started and gives cluesabout what is to come. Use transitions that link the ideas. Develop sequencing and pacing. Write a satisfying conclusion. 12. Organization 1 of 3How can I teach students the organization trait?1. Start with the Introduction:Share some examples from literature: Tuck Everlasting, Walk Two Moons, Indian in the CupboardShare student leads, then chart the best ones.Use expert quotes or thought provoking questions.Break the Rules play with the punctuation and capitalization. (conventions) 13. Organization 2 of 3How can I teach students the organization trait?2. Develop the Middle:Teach organizational options, organize by: space, time, content, or perspectiveTeach transitions to: show location, compare or contrast, add information, show time, or concludeTeach sequencing: Step by Step write directions Mix It Up mix up stories, poems, and sentences, cut them apart like puzzles and have students put them together again 14. Organization 3 of 3How can I teach students the organization trait?1. Writing Conclusions: Use examples from literature Share a profound thought - (Roald Dahl, Matilda)Tie-Up any loose ends for the reader - (Jean Fritz, Homesick)Use a quote - (Louis Sachar, Holes)A Question or Open-Ended Statement (Natalie Babbitt, Tuck Everlasting) 15. #3 VOICE Voice is the writers music coming out through the words. Voice is how the reader knows it is really you speaking. Students struggle with voice because voice isnt as concrete as other traits, there is a perception that boring is good, its a bit too personal. Some teachers think not all writing requires voice, but voice finds its way into even the simplest of communications. 16. VOICE: Teachers must help students to find their voice:Create writing that speaks directly to the reader on an emotional level.Craft writing to match the purpose and the audience.Take risks and reveal the person behind the words. 17. VoiceHow can I teach students the voice trait?1. Introducing Voice with Song: Share different artists recordings of the same song over the years.2. Introducing Voice with Art: Show four or five art prints of the same subject, or illustrate the trait.3. Learning to hear voice in literature: My personal favorite - E.B. White, Charlottes Web4. Compare and Contrast: Same story, different authors 18. The difference between the rightword and the almost right word isthe difference between lightning anda lightning bug. - Mark Twain#4Word choice isntCHOICE - orWORD just about the usemisuse - of words. Its using everydaywords well. Its rich, colorful, preciselanguage that communicates, inspiresand enlightens the reader.Students struggle with word choicebecause the language used to explainthings isnt always clear, often vocabularyis taught in isolation, and students getword drunk using words that just dontwork. 19. WORD CHOICE:Teachers must help students to use: Striking Language: Sharpening studentsdescriptive powers Exact Language: Lively verbs, precisenouns, accurate modifiers Natural Language: Making is sound authentic Beautiful Language: Selecting colorful wordsand phrases 20. Word ChoiceHow can I teach students the word choicetrait?1. Find key words and phrases in captivating texts2. YourPersonal Top Ten: The students and you keep an ongoing list of your top ten favorite words.3. Exact Language: Activities for using lively verbs, precise nouns and accurate modifiers Connotation Poems, Synonym Searches, Words, Words Everywhere 21. #5 SENTENCE FLUENCY Fluent writing is graceful, varied and rhythmic, it has a natural cadence. Fluent writing is free of awkward word patterns. Fluent writing has well-built sentences with varied beginnings, and lengths. Students struggle with sentence fluency because there is an overemphasis on correctness, writing classrooms can be too quiet (we need to hear good writing), and its harder than it looks! 22. SENTENCE FLUENCY:Teachers must help students to:Establish a flow, rhythm, and cadenceVary sentence length and structureConstruct sentences that enhance the meaning of the text 23. Sentence Fluency 1 of 2How can I teach students the sentence fluency trait?1. Establishing Flow, Rhythm, Cadence: Students read their own writing out loud (try phones to encourage this behavior, Choral Reading, Poetry, Classic Music pieces, like Peter and the Wolf2. Varying Sentence Length and Structure: Sentence stretching (try this in teams, just pass the sentence along) Matthew snarfed the pizza. Matthew snarfed the cheesy pizza. Matthew snarfed the steamy, cheesy pizza. 24. Sentence Fluency 2 of 2How can I teach students the sentence fluency trait?3. Constructing Sentences That Enhance Meaning: Using punctuation for emphasis - remove the punctuation from a piece of text and have pairs put it back in. Later show them the piece correctly punctuated. 25. My spelling is wobbly. Its good spelling, but it wobbles and the letters get in the wrong places. - A.A. Milne, Winnie the Pooh#6Conventions guide the reader through2CONVENTIONS 1 of the text making the ideas readable and understandable. Conventions are a part of editing, the other traits are revision traits. Conventions are: spelling, punctuation, grammar and usage, capitalization, and paragraphing. 26. My spelling is wobbly. Its goodspelling, but it wobbles and the lettersget in the wrong places.- A.A. Milne, Winnie the Pooh#6 CONVENTIONS 2 of 2Students struggle with conventionsbecause they dont see the power ofconventions as a way to makemeaning, its a constant struggle to forteachers to find the best way to teachconventions, and we dont encouragestudents to take risks. 27. CONVENTIONS: Teachers must help students to: Be sure students understand that editing andrevising are different. Expect correctness, but keep the studentsdevelopmental level and age in mind. Value experimentation, but balance it withcorrectness. Be patient. Learning to use conventions well takestime! 28. Conventions 1 of 2How can I teach students the conventions trait?1. Everyday Practices: One Error at a Time, Set Aside Editing Time, Model, Keep Writing Tools Handy (dictionaries, thesaurus, grammar handbooks), Ask Why (ask students why they chose certain conventions, make them think!)2. General Editing: Conventions Game, Take It Out, Error Hunt, Conventions Center (Students become the experts, others go to an expert to get help) 29. Conventions 2 of 2How can I teach students the conventionstrait?3.Editing for Spelling: Reading Backwards (this helps studentsfocus on individual words), Practice Makes Perfect (high-frequency words)4.Editing for Capital Letters: Bouncing Ball (bounce a rubberball every time there should be a capital)5.Editing Punctuation: Try Dialogue Posters for quotations.6. Editing for Grammar: Schoolhouse Rock, Use Literature. 30. +1How the writing looks to the reader.PRESENTATIONDoes the writing have a finished look?Has the student created a polishedpiece ready to be read and appreciated?Presentation is part of the traits becauseteachers were assessing it as part ofconventions; however, it is not as meatyas the other traits, so it is labeled +1. 31. PRESENTATION:Teachers must help students to learn the following guidelines: Uniform spacing Legible and consistent handwriting, or appropriatefonts and sizes Appealing use of w

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