24.1 latin american peoples win independence

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  • 1. 24.1 Latin American24.1 Latin AmericanPeoples Win IndependencePeoples Win IndependenceSpurred by discontent andSpurred by discontent andEnlightenment ideas, peoples inEnlightenment ideas, peoples inLatin America fight colonial rule.Latin America fight colonial rule.

2. Colonial Society DividedColonial Society Divided A Race and Class SystemA Race and Class System Latin America has social classes that determineLatin America has social classes that determinejobs and authorityjobs and authority PeninsularesPeninsularesborn in Spain, they head colonialborn in Spain, they head colonialgovernment and societygovernment and society CreolesCreolesAmerican-born Spaniards who can becomeAmerican-born Spaniards who can becomearmy officersarmy officers MestizosMestizoshave both European and Native Americanhave both European and Native Americanancestryancestry MulattosMulattoshave both European and African ancestryhave both European and African ancestry Slaves and Native Americans are at the bottom ofSlaves and Native Americans are at the bottom ofsocietysociety 3. Revolutions in the AmericasRevolutions in the Americas Revolution in HaitiRevolution in Haiti Haiti is the first Latin AmericanHaiti is the first Latin Americanterritory to gain freedomterritory to gain freedom Toussaint LOuvertureToussaint LOuverture leadsleadsslave revolt against the Frenchslave revolt against the French(1791)(1791) Toussaint eventually dies in aToussaint eventually dies in aFrench prison in 1803.French prison in 1803. 4. Revolutions in HaitiRevolutions in Haiti Haitis IndependenceHaitis Independence Jean-Jacques DessalinesJean-Jacques Dessalinesdeclares Saint Domingue adeclares Saint Domingue acountry in 1804country in 1804 Saint Domingue becomesSaint Domingue becomesfirst black colony to winfirst black colony to winindependenceindependence Renames Haiti, meansRenames Haiti, meansmountainous land in themountainous land in theArawak languageArawak language Emperor Jacques isEmperor Jacques isassassinated in 1806 byassassinated in 1806 bydisaffected members of hisdisaffected members of hisadministration.administration. 5. Creoles Lead IndependenceCreoles Lead Independence The Spread of Enlightenment IdeasThe Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment ideas inspire LatinEnlightenment ideas inspire LatinAmerican revolutionariesAmerican revolutionaries Creole LeadersCreole Leaders Simn BolvarSimn Bolvarwealthy Creole leadswealthy Creole leadsVenezuela in revolutionVenezuela in revolution Jos de San MartnJos de San Martnleader ofleader ofArgentinean revolutionary forcesArgentinean revolutionary forces 6. 1. Bolivars 1807return fromEurope by wayof the UnitedStates allowedhim to study theAmericansystem ofgovernment.2. In 1810, Bolivarwent to Londonto seek supportfor therevolution inLatin America.At the sametime, he studiedBritishinstitutions ofgovernment. 7. Portraits of Bolivar and San MartinPortraits of Bolivar and San Martin 8. Creoles Lead IndependenceCreoles Lead Independence Bolvars Route to VictoryBolvars Route to Victory Venezuela declares independence inVenezuela declares independence in1811; Bolivar wins war by 18211811; Bolivar wins war by 1821 San Martn Leads SouthernSan Martn Leads SouthernLiberation ForcesLiberation Forces Argentina is independent in 1816; SanArgentina is independent in 1816; SanMartin helps free ChileMartin helps free Chile Bolvars and San Martns armies driveBolvars and San Martns armies driveSpanish out of Peru in 1824.Spanish out of Peru in 1824. 9. Mexico Ends Spanish RuleMexico Ends Spanish Rule A Cry for FreedomA Cry for Freedom PadrePadre Miguel HidalgoMiguel Hidalgopriest who launchespriest who launchesMexican revolt (1810).Mexican revolt (1810). 80,000 Indian and80,000 Indian andMestizo followers marchMestizo followers marchon Mexico Cityon Mexico City Jose Maria MorelosJose Maria Morelosleads revolt afterleads revolt afterHidalgos defeat, butHidalgos defeat, butlosesloses Both Hidalgo andBoth Hidalgo andMorelos were executed.Morelos were executed. 10. An artisticrepresentationof theexecution ofJose MariaMorelos in1815. 11. Mexico Ends Spanish RuleMexico Ends Spanish Rule MexicosMexicosIndependenceIndependence Mexican creoles react;Mexican creoles react;Iturbide (a MexicanIturbide (a MexicanGeneral) declaresGeneral) declaresMexico independentMexico independent(1821)(1821) Iturbide reigns brieflyIturbide reigns brieflyas emperor until Marchas emperor until March1823.1823. In 1823, CentralIn 1823, CentralAmerica breaks awayAmerica breaks awayfrom Mexicofrom MexicoAgustn de Iturbide 12. Iturbide is credited with designing thefirst Mexican flag. (1821-1823)Todays Flag of MexicoThe tri-color flag is stillused, and the presence ofthe eagle is also used inthe modern flag of Mexicoused since 1968. 13. Brazils Royal LiberatorBrazils Royal Liberator A BloodlessA BloodlessRevolutionRevolution Napoleon invadesNapoleon invadesPortugal; royalPortugal; royalfamily moves tofamily moves toBrazil (1807)Brazil (1807) Portuguese courtPortuguese courtreturns to Portugalreturns to Portugalafter Napoleonsafter Napoleonsdefeat (1815)defeat (1815)The Imperial Palace in Rio deJaneiro where King John VIof Portugal had transferredthe Portuguese Royal Courtto Brazil. 14. Brazils Royal LiberatorBrazils Royal Liberator Portuguese prince DomPortuguese prince DomPedro stays behind inPedro stays behind inBrazilBrazil Dom Pedro acceptsDom Pedro acceptsBrazilians request to ruleBrazilians request to ruletheir own countrytheir own country He officially declaresHe officially declaresBrazils independenceBrazils independence(September 1822)(September 1822) By 1830, nearly all ofBy 1830, nearly all ofLatin American regionsLatin American regionswin independencewin independencePedro I of Brazil 15. Flag of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro I