- 1.Sensor Fault Diagnosis for Wind Turbine Generators Using Kalman FilterGuided by: Dr. R . Saravana Kumar Professor School of Electrical Engineering(SELECT) VIT University.Tej Enosh. M M.Tech Power Electronics and Drives VIT University.
2. Outline Introduction Doubly Fed Induction Generator operation(DFIG) Modeling of DFIG Kalman Filter & Filter Bank Generalized observer Scheme & Dedicated Observer Scheme DFIG State Estimation with Kalman Filter Fault detection using Dedicated Observer Scheme In DFIG Modeling of PMSG Fault Detection in PMSG 3. Objective To create a model of DFIG To Identify the Current Sensor Fault in DFIG with Dedicated observer scheme using kalman Filter To create a state space model for PMSG To Identify the Current Sensor Fault in PMSG with Dedicated observer scheme using kalman Filter To Identify the Current Sensor Fault in PMSG with Augmented kalman Filter 4. Introduction Wind energy - the fastest-growing source of energy in the world The doubly feed induction generator (DFIG) is one of the most used drive in wind energy because of its low cost, simplicity of maintenance, reliability When a fault occurs, it must be detected as soon as possible The data validation is important in this processes The control system operates with the information of the system provided by sensors --- can be go through faults. 5. Cont.. When a fault occurs, it must be detected as soon as possible, even where all observed signals remain in their allowable limits. The fault must then be located and its cause identified This aspect becomes more and more investigated because of the construction of high capacity offshore wind parks. 6. Problem Identified The control system operates with the information of the system provided by sensors, which can be subjected to faults For The isolation of the fault the two following fault scenarios will be used i) multiple but non simultaneous faults scenario ii) simultaneous faults scenario. The state observer for fault detection and isolation Filter bank used to estimate the dynamical behaviors of the system in order to detect then to isolate the fault. Previous Method For Study of Current sensor Fault and Voltage sensor Fault is Luenberger observers method It has proposed an observer scheme base on Kalman filter to diagnosticate the current sensor fault of a DFIG because of its discrete property 7. Methodology Operating principle of a wind turbine using doubly fed induction generator Modeling of the doubly fed induction generator The Kalman filter bank based on Generalized Observer Scheme The Kalman filter bank based on Dedicated Observer Scheme Validation of simulated DFIG & PMSM for current sensor FDI 8. Kalman Filter The Kalman filter uses the dynamical model, the known inputs to that system as well as the measurement (which given by sensors) to estimate the state of the system. Widely use in automatic filtering as a mathematical technique to extract a signal from noisy measurements.xk+1 = Axk + Buk + wk zk = Hxk + vk A,B,H are matrices of approximated dimension p(w) N(0,Q) Q --process covariance noise p(v) N(0,R) R-- measurement covariance noisew- Process noise and v- measurement noises 9. The implementation of Kalman filter could be divided in two steps. Prediction step and Correction step. Prediction Step: Correction Step: The diagnostic scheme with Kalman filter is capable to detect the fault but it is unable to locate the fault. To resolve this problem, a filter bank will be used. 10. Filter bank for the FDI problem To Design state observer for fault detection and isolation is a well known problem. Filter bank used to estimate the dynamical behaviors of the system in order to detect then to isolate the fault. The first kind of filter bank is Dedicated Observer Scheme (DOS). The second one, Generalized Observer Scheme (GOS). Each filter bank is composed by a number of observers, which are supplied with all of the input and different subsets of output of the system. A Decision unit diagnosticate whether or not faults are presented in the sensors and which one is faulty by comparing the estimated outputs with the measured ones 11. Generalized Observer Scheme and Dedicated Observer Scheme Generalized Observer Scheme Can Detect Single Sensor Fault Dedicated Observer Scheme (DOS) Can Detect a Simultaneous FaultsGOS The structure of a GOS for a MIMO systemDOS In this scheme each observer is driven by a different single output. 12. Generalized Observer Scheme Structure of GOS for MIMO System Supervised System with 4 outputs ith observer is driven by the input u and all of the output except yi By this way residual vector rG,i depends on all but the ith fault 13. Dedicated Observer Scheme In this observer scheme each observer is driven by a different single output. Hence ith observer is only sensitive to the failure of yi Then the residual rD,i represents the failure of the ith sensor. Advantage: It allows to detect and isolate simultaneous faults. 14. DFIG State Estimation with Kalman Filter 15. Schema of wind turbine using DFIG 16. Modeling Of Double Fed Induction Generator In this work, we consider that the DFIG operates at a fixedspeed Crotor convertor should be considered as control signals. The generated power is determined by the currents in the windings of stator and rotor; these currents are to be measured. The stator voltages are the voltages of the grid as known external inputs. The model of DFIG was transformed in dq reference frame. The d-axis is chosen to coincide with stator phase r-axis at t = 0 and The q-axis leads the d-axis by 90 degree in the direction of rotation. 17. State-Space Representation of the DFIG 18. Cont.. Discrete State Space representation of DFIGC & E are the unity 4x4 matrix 19. FDI of the Current Sensor Faults For The isolation of the fault the two following fault scenarios will be used i) multiple but non simultaneous faults scenario ii) simultaneous faults scenario. Fault detection using Kalman filter Residual rK obtained from the Kalman filter with no sensors failure. The sensors faults are detected. Fault detection and isolation using Generalized Observer Scheme Fault detection and isolation using Dedicated Observer Scheme Model in the Loop validation 20. Residual Without Sensor Fault 21. Residual With Sensor Fault 22. Fault Detection Event NumberFault NumberStarting Time1F150 Sec2F2150 Sec3F3250 Sec4F4350 Sec 23. Fault Detection Event NumberFault NumberStarting Time1F150 Sec2F2150 Sec3F3250 Sec4F4350 Sec 24. Fault Detection Event NumberFault NumberStarting Time1F150 Sec2F2150 Sec3F3250 Sec4F4350 Sec 25. Fault Detection Event NumberFault NumberStarting Time1F150 Sec2F2150 Sec3F3250 Sec4F4350 Sec 26. PMSG State Estimation with Kalman Filter 27. Overview Variable Speed operation of Modern wind turbine enables Optimization of the performance Reduces the mechanical loading Delivers various options for active power plant control Mathematical Modeling of PMSG Kalman Filter for State estimation in PMSG Fault detection Using Kalman Filter Augmented State Kalman Filter for PMSG 28. Estimation, Fault Diagnosis Architecture mi Z PMSG System PMSG SystemWeights & initial state informationEstimator0 Estimator1 Estimator2 EstimatorN Kalman Estimator bankState Estimation & residual generation 29. Fault Evaluation methodOutput SensorsInputComputing Of M( kalman gain)Residual GenerationFault detectionResidual Decision Making Fault Detection 30. Mathematical model of PMSG 31. State Space model of PMSG} System Model 32. Residual without current sensor faultResidualResidual32.52 2 1.51 1residual,rresidual,r0.500-0.5 -1 -1-1.5 -2 -2-3 020406080100 Id120140160180200-2.5 020406080100 Iq120140160180200 33. Residual with current sensor fault rD,1rD,2PMSM idq1PMSM idq20.030.8 0.70.0250.6 0.020.015residual,rresidual,r0.50.010.4 0.3 0.20.005 0.1 0-0.0050050100150200-0.1050100150200 34. Augmented state kalman filter Discretized equation set 35. Augmented state vector of PMSGA=Augmented State VectorAugmented PMSM modelB= 36. Residual of Augmented state PMSG Without faultAugmented ModelAugmented Model231.5 2 10.5 1residual-rresidual-r0-0.50-1 -1 -1.5-2 -2 -2.5-3020406080100 Id120140160180200-3020406080100 Iq120140160180200 37. Conclusion In this project, problem of current sensor Fault Detection in DFIG and PMSM of wind turbine was treated. Detection and the isolation of multiple sensor faults was addressed using the Kalman filter bank in a Dedicated observer scheme(DOS). All the multiple and simultaneous faults is detected and located with the observer scheme. There is no miss detection. 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