2 thinking critically with psyc

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  • *Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

  • *Thinking Critically with Psychological ScienceThe Need for Psychological ScienceThe limits of Intuition and Common SenseThe Scientific AttitudeThe Scientific Method

    FAQS About Psychology

  • *Impression of Psychology Hoping to satisfy curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to know about others and themselves.Dr. Crane (radio-shrink)http://www.nbc.comhttp://www.photovault.comPsychic (Ball gazing)

  • *The Need for Psychological ScienceIntuition & Common SenseMany of us believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers about human nature.Although intuition and common sense may aid queries, they are not free of error.

  • *Limits of IntuitionPersonal interviewers tend to be overconfident of their gut feelings about job applicants.Taxi/ Getty Images

  • *Errors of Common SenseTry this !If you were to fold a piece of paper (0.1 mm thick) 100 times, how large do you think its thickness would be?800,000,000,000,000 times the distance between the sun and the earth.

  • *We tend to believe, after learning about an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. We knew that the dot.com stocks would plummet, only after they did.Hindsight BiasHindsight Bias is the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.

  • *OverconfidenceWe tend to think we know more than we actually do. AnagramBARGEGRABEENTRYETYRNWATERWREATHow long do you think would it take to unscramble these anagrams?People said about 10 seconds. On average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).

  • *Psychological ScienceHow can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions?The science of psychology can help make these examined conclusions, which lead to our understanding what people feel, think, act, as they do!

  • *The Scientific AttitudeThe scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (humbleness to accept when wrong).

  • *Critical ThinkingCritical thinking does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions.

    It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, assesses conclusions.The Amazing RandiCourtesy of the James Randi Education Foundation

  • *Scientific MethodPsychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.

  • *Theory is an explanation that integrates principles, organizes and predicts behaviors or events.

    For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.Theory

  • *Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often induced by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.

    People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.Hypothesis

  • *Research would require us to administer tests of self esteem and depression to people. Individuals who score low on self-esteem measures and high on depression tests, would confirm our hypothesis.Research Observations

  • *Research Process

  • *FAQQ1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?

    Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.

  • *FAQQ2. Does behavior depend on ones culture?

    Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same.Ami Vitale/ Getty Images

  • *FAQQ3. Does behavior vary with gender?

    Ans: Yes. Biology determines our sex, and then culture further bends the genders. Yet in many ways women and men are similarly human.

  • *FAQQ4. Why do psychologists study animals?

    Ans: Study of animals gives us understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans.D. Shapiro, Wildlife Conservation Society

  • *FAQQ5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

    Ans: Yes. To gain insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals.

  • *FAQQ6. Is it ethical to experiment on people?

    Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm that is beyond normal levels encountered in daily life can be carried out.

  • *FAQQ7. Is psychology free of value judgments?

    Ans: No. Psychology emerges from people who subscribe to a set of values and judgments. Roger Shepard

    Psychology 7e in Modules*

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