- 1.Chapter 16: The Late Renaissance and Mannerism in 16th Century Italy Events: Reorientation of trade routes from the east (Italy in prime location) to the west (discovery of America) Ever increasing threat of Turkish invasion Machiavelli publishes The Prince 1532: advocates that each situation determines whether one should be good or bad-moral and economic relativity Classical calm, harmonious images no longer in fashion Artistic license practiced more freely and openly (for a little while at least) Map of 16th Italy
2. Protestant Reformation Events: Martin Luther 95 Theses, 1517 Founder of Lutheranism 95 arguments against the Catholic church Indulgences Role of artworks, abuse of power/idolatry Access to the Bible Lucas Cranach, Portrait of Martin Luther, 1533. Oil on 14 x 18. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 3. Rome Example: Adjusts Bramantes central plan Greek cross inscribed in square Dome over crossing Colossal order Michelangelo, plan for new Saint Peters,1546. 4. Italy Michelangelo, plan for new Saint Peters, 1546. Donato dAnegelo Bramante, Original plan for St. Peters, Rome, 1502-1511. Fig. 15.5 5. Italy Dates and Places: 1500 to 1600 Rome, Florence, Milan, and Venice People: Humanism Reformation/Counter- Reformation Powerful courts Artist-genius Interior, Sistine Chapel showing Interior of the Sistine Chapel with frescoes by Michelangelo, Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, and others, 1473-1541. Fig.15.9 6. Rome Example: Commissioned by Pope Paul III (Farnese) Subject reflects time based on Matthew New take on traditional topic with possible pagan references Compression of space Dynamic design Dramatic composition Michelangelo, Last Judgment, with detail of St. Bartholomew from the Sistine Chapel, fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. Fig. 16.5 7. Rome Michelangelo, detail scenes from Last Judgment, with detail of Christ and the Virgin Mary. Fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. 8. Rome Michelangelo, Last Judgment, with detail of St. Bartholomew from the Sistine Chapel, fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. Fig. 14.28 Self-portrait of Michelangelo 9. Rome 10. Rome Michelangelo, detail scenes from Last Judgment, with detail of Minos (left) and Charon (right). Fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. 11. Italian Mannerism General characteristics: c. 1520-1580 Elegant and refined, sophisticated Artificial (versus naturalism of High Renaissance style) Courtly style Overelaborate distortion Compositional tension, not clarity Psychological tension Impresses one with a feeling of awkwardness Self-conscious stylishness, not window onto world Complex, exaggerated, difficult Unstable composition, unnatural color Rosso Fiorentino, Descent from the Cross, 1521. Oil on panel, 11 x 65 . Pinacoteca Comunale, Volterra, Italy. Fig. 16.2 12. Florence Example: Medici court Mannerist complicated allegory or pun Folly of love revealed by time Lascivious, sensuous Strong contours, undulating and exaggerated limbs, complex pose shows artists skill Agnolo Bronzino , Allegory of Venus: Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Oil on panel, 51 x48 . National Gallery, London. Fig. 16.3 13. Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572) Example: Elegant conception Agitated composition, full of incidents but, little sense of dramatic unity Figures elongated and have energetic, angular postures Arranged to create a decorative pattern No strong emotions, superficial Shallow space Forms tend to adhere to the vertical plane Removes the event from the realm of flesh and blood Mannerist refinement and artifice prevail over nature and feeling Agnolo Bronzino , Allegory of Venus: Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Oil on panel, 51 x48 . National Gallery, London. Fig. 16.3 14. Parmigianino (1503-1540) Example: Odd spatial juxtapositions and non-Classical proportions Mismatched bodies Marys clothing strays from convention Tiny man? Column? Mary as architectural structure of church, column of childbirth, flagellation Vessel-Mary as vessel that gave birth to Christ, body echoes shape Christ as sleeping baby foreshadows death Modern Piet? Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, c. 1535. Oil on panel, approx. 71 x 44. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 16.9 15. Tiziano Vecellio (Titian 1488/90-1576) Example: Commissioned by Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino Venetian painters love color (colorito), atmosphere, texture Oil on canvas glows Voluptuous body with smoky shadow, framed by curtain Portrait or mythology? New genre of female nude Color organizes composition Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3 11 x 5 5. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 16.11 16. Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c. 1509. Oil on canvas, 36 x 5 9. Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3 11 x 5 5. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 16.11 Manet, Olympia, 1865. Oil on canvas, 4 3 x 6 3. Muse d'Orsay, Paris 17. Venice Paolo Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, Italy, 1573. Oil on canvas, 18 2 x 42. Galleria dell Accademia, Venice. Fig.16.12 18. Paolo Cagliari Veronese (1528-1588) Example: Late Venetian painting Naturalism of Titian Pageantry of event Classical setting Invented characters Renaissance balanced composition Interest in detail Symmetry of Leonardo and Raphael Inquisition challenges subject so changes title Paint pictures as I see fit Paolo Veronese,Feast in the House of Levi, Italy, 1573. Oil on canvas, 18 2 x 42. Galleria dell Accademia, Venice. Fig.16.12 19. Venice Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592-1594. Oil on canvas, 12x188. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. Fig 16.13 20. Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto (1518-1594) Example: Nickname Little Dyer Paint like Titian, design like Michelangelo Counter-Reformation painting Moment depicted: demonstration of body and blood Strong diagonals, site specific Strong use of light and dark Mysterious light source Natural and supernatural worlds Exaggeration of poses Judas again in the dark Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592-1594. Oil on canvas, 12x188. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. Fig 16.13 21. Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, c. 14951498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 15 1 1/8 x 28 10 . Refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. Fig. 15.2 Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592-1594. Oil on canvas, 12x188. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. Fig 16.13 22. Vicenza Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570.Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14. 23. Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) Example: Greatest architect of late 16th century Vitruvius main influence Synthesizes elements of Mannerism with High Renaissance ideals Near Venice Central plan Dome over crossing Four facades like temple portals Pantheon likely model Wrote architectural treatise, Four Books of Architecture (1570) Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570.Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14. 24. Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570. Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14. Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple after Vitruvius Pantheon, 118-125 CE, Rome. 25. Andrea Palladio (1506-1580) Example: Design aesthetic based on humanist education Private residence, built for Venetian cleric Classic temple portico (porch) with Ionic columns support entablature crowned by pediment Symmetry in design=dignity and grandeur Strict symmetry is both Classical and Renaissance element Andrea Palladio, floor plan Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570.Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14.