Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad, First Chapter First part in English--Ashvamedha and animal sacrifice.

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The sacrifice of a celestial horse. (Ahsvamedha) (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, first chapter, first Brahmin---with original texts in English fonts and meanings.) (First edition.)…

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The sacrifice of a celestial horse. (Ahsvamedha) (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, first chapter, first Brahmin---with original texts in English fonts and meanings.) (First edition.) (Written following the teaching of my Gurus, the great seer BijoyKrishna Chattopaadhyaaya (1875-1945) and his principle disciple Tridibnath Bandopaadhyaaya (1923-1994).) Note: Sanskrit words which are written in italics in this article are the i- trans version of Devanagari (Sanskrit) Text and can be read in the Sanskrit English Lexicon by Sir Monier Williams available in the internet at < http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/monier/> Introduction----Animal Sacrifice. The article here is on the first chapter and first part of Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad. The seer or Rishi of this Upanishad is yaj~navalkya and he has described how the self-revealing, active eternal Consciousness is existing in the physical form as the earth and the Universe, and how the Consciousness after creating us, is carrying us back beyond the death. It is said that the Consciousness carries us back as a horse. In this presentation, the meaning and significance of âhorse sacrificeâ has been explained. In this chapter of the Upanishad, it has not been told where the Consciousness carries us, i.e. whether the destination is the place âbeyond deathâ. However, elsewhere in Chandogya and Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad it is explicitly mentioned that as a âhorseâ, the praaNa or mukhya (principal) praaNa carries us beyond the death. The intention of the seers was not to camouflage what they wanted to tell from their experience by using allegories. Their words inherently carry the entirety of an expression as they know the mysteries of the words. By the word horse, he sees the âConsciousness running as time and pulling all of us as well as the animal named horse. They have taught us how the expressing Consciousness has become the universe itself including all of us. Thus, they know how the Consciousness or the expressions or words of Consciousness have become physical. The expressing Consciousness has been described as of two personalities, vaak (female) and praaNa (male). vaak shapes praaNa in all the forms, which we perceive as the universe. So, the formed and processed words are called âvakyaâ or formation of vaak. So, every object, every event, every moment and every being is the âwordâ of Consciousness. When they (the seers) say ashva or horse, their saying contains the knowledge of how the expressing Consciousness has become ashva or a horse. Thus, the word at the root is not confined to only a four-hoofed animal called âhorseâ. The word defines and describes all the aspects of Consciousness that represents the ashva; a horse is called ashva because such aspects are naturally visible in it. Similarly, all the religious rituals laid down by the seers, express the function and work of the Universal consciousness. The description of ashvamedha (ritual in which a horse is sacrificed) is one such. Here, below, we have briefly presented the mysteries behind animal sacrifice which we have learnt from our guru, the great seer BijoyKrishna Chattopadhaya (lived from 1875-1945 and known as Howrahâs Thakurâgod of the place called Howrah where he lived). Some of the family members advised Rishi BijoyKrishna to abandon the ritual of animal sacrifice. Animal sacrifice used to be carried out only during the Kali puja (worship of the goddess Kali) which was performed in the ancestral house of the Rishi (seer) in the village called Nikash. One of the reasons why Rishi BijoyKrishna did not interfere with the same could be because the ritual of animal sacrifice was in practice by several generations of his family. Sacrifice was also performed by the Rishi during the puja (worship) of the goddess Durgaa and the goddess Vishwamaataa (Universal Mother goddess) in Howrah every year. In these puja-s (worships) a vegetable called âash gourdâ (winter melon) representing the sacrificial animal(pashu) was used and is still being used by his followers. (The reason for not using an animal in his puja could be twoâ(i) sacrifice is meant for destructing the animal instincts by attaining the divinity and which was his action on his disciples leading them to divinity; (ii) death fearing persons tend to get upset or confused if a live animal is sacrificed.) However, in his preaching, he has addressed the mysteries behind âanimal sacrificeâ and here is a quote from his sayings on a November day in the year of 1934: Quote âHuman beings follow the laws of karma (transformation and consequences due to oneâs desire, determination and consequent actions or deeds)), but this is not the case with creatures which are lower than the human beings in the domain of evolution (to eternity). So, such creatures do not have to go through the rules of karma (deeds and their effects) as experienced by the human beings. After their deaths, they (animals) are transformed to the other states of existence in a very straightforward manner and fast. They usually are reborn within 10 to 15 days of their death. This is unlike the case for human beings, whose rebirth happens after several years. The human beings, after their deaths, pass through various stages of existence or states and experiences and this is as per their living on the earth. This is not the case with animals and lower beings. Such animals or beings cannot stay in the higher planes of existence as they are driven by nature or instincts and not by karma (or by the considerations of vice and virtues, right and wrong); thus, they are not responsible for their deeds. In what a crafty way, the Mother (Universal consciousness) transfers them (from life to death and to rebirth)! In the economy of nature, the mighty one devours or kills those which are small and weak; so many die by the turmoil of nature or by floods and by some other destructive events; majority die like this. When they are killed like that, the picture of the death scene is drawn and imprinted very vividly in their heart. Consider an ant is being devoured by a frog. During that time, the ant may be feeling that if it would have had the piercing stings it could have stung the frog or if it would have had the fast running capability it could have run away from the frog. This heart rendering feeling during the death is created in it by the Mother and following this feeling during the death its (antâs) rebirth happens accordingly. Animals do not experience any consequences for their deeds after their death. If they are slaughtered, they are reborn as evolved creatures (rising up in the ladder of evolution). (Note: The intense feelings during the death becomes the cause of the transformation or evolution after the death. The ant so died, may become an insect that can fly away or may become another creature that can run away fast or a creature that can fight with a frog. Thus, it gets some new features and some of its previous capabilities are enhanced. This is how its rebirth is determined and evolution happens.) However, human sacrifice is a completely different subject. By sacrifice, it is possible to raise a person to a level of higher being, if the one carrying out the sacrifice can merge with the person to be sacrificed and take control over him. However, if it is not carried out properly, the person thus sacrificed will be debased due to the sudden termination of life. Ritual of human sacrifice is not a doctrine mentioned in the Vedas; indeed, in some of the Tantric rituals it has been described but, it carries no value at all. So, this is all about vali (sacrifice). The performer, who has to perform the sacrifice, is only eligible to do so if he possesses a very strong determination that can act on the animal (to be sacrificed) and uplift it to a higher being. The seers (Rishi-s) have never performed any thing for their sole benefit. Rishis who are omniscient, cannot introduce a ritual (animal sacrifice) which actually is an act of atrocity during the worship of the goddess, which is the sheer slaughter of an innocent animal or which is an act of barbarism under the guise of religion. They (the seers) would never have prescribed animal sacrifice if there would not be a real auspicious intention behind the same. Those who are death-fearing, they will never understand the underlying mysteries behind the ritual of animal sacrifice. The Rishis (seers) have symbolized the gist of the whole Vedas through the ritual of animal sacrifice established by them. This was same as the offering soma to the gods. Sacrifice or vali means to lift someone from the animalism (animal instincts) to the divinity. The deities called Fire, Air and Sun were animals. They performed the yaj~na (sacrifice--- the act of getting joined to the divinity) by using their animalhood and thus they have become eternal. I myself will do the yaj~na by my humanity and by that only I will become eternal. In such a sacrifice, you will remain living even if you are killed----âtasmat (thatâs why) yaj~nae (in yaj~na) vadho (slaughter) avadho (is not the slaughter)â----thatâs why in yaj~na killing does not kill ! Unquote (Note---etymological meaning of yaj~na----ya + j~na; ya= ya (who) + j~na (know / knowledge)---(i) who knows or the Universal knower or Universal Consciousness; (ii) the act or the ritual to know âwho knows everythingâ; (iii) ya (joining/ join) + j~na (knower/knowledge)- --joining the knower or the Universal Consciousness; (iv) ya (restraining or controlling) + j~na (knower/knowledge)---act of control by knowing or by knowledge or by Consciousness.) During one of the pujas (worships), he (Guru) mentioned, âvalaaya (since strength is achieved) vali (vali) ucahhte (is said)âsince one gets strength (vala) through sacrifice, so it is called âvaliâ. Getting into divinity is getting strength, because then one gets emancipated from the tentacles of physicality and one dominates over physicality. Physicality becomes a part of the Consciousness, to the one who gets into divinity. Consciousness controls the physicality. vala is called strength or force. By force the change in motion or change of state is done. This is praaNa or Active Consciousness and also called âkaalaâ or âtimeâ. In vali, the head (shira) is to be severed (Cheda) from the body (decapitation) because the head or the face is the seat of the Consciousness who controls and reveals. The rest of the body represents the physicality. We are not going here into further details on the mantras and methods of vali. Except that a few mantras related to vali referred above are quoted below: (i) (the sacred words addressed to the animal to be sacrificed during the vali) agnih (agni) pashuraasIt (was an animal) The deity called agni (god of Fire) was an animal. tena (by that /by the animalism itself) ayajanta (performed yaj~na----joined with the divinity) He performed the sacrifice (yaj~na) by it (by his animal- hoodâby connecting animalism to divinity). sa (he) aetam (this) lokam (domain/ abode) ajayat (conquered) He (agni) conquered this domain (kingdom of the deity agni). (He attained the state of the deity agni.) yasmin (where is) agni (agni) sa(that) te (yours) loko (location / abode) bhavishyati (will become) Wherever the deity agni is, that shall be your abode. tam (you) yeShyasi (will excel) You will excel. piva (drink) aetah (this) aapah (water/ spirit). Drink this water (which will lead you to âagniâ). Similar hymns are chanted for the animal with reference to the deity vaayu (Air) and sUrya (Sun). Thus, the animal is raised to the basic plane of divinity. This is because, the three main deities (as mentioned in Upanishad) are agni or vaak, vaayu or praaNa, sUrya or manas (mind) who are invoked as stated above. (ii) yaj~naarthe (for the sake of yaj~na) pashavha (the animals) sRiShTaa (are created) yaj~naarthe (for the sake of yaj~na) pashu (the animals) ghaatanam (are slaughtered) atostam (hence you) ghaatayiShami (I will kill) tasmat (since) yaj~ne (in yaj~na) vadho (killing) avadhah (is not killing/ does not lead to death). The animals are created for the sake of yaj~na. The animals are slaughtered for the sake of yaj~na. Hence, I will kill you, since in yaj~na killing does not kill one. Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, first chapter, first Brahmin.) This is the first Brahmin (braahmaNa) of the first chapter of Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad. Each part is called a braahmaNa or a form of brahma. brahma means the Universal Consciousness who is expanding, and exceeding everyone. The word brahma is from the root word bRih meaning âto expandâ or âto growâ. praaNa is the active form of Universal Consciousness. praaNa = pra (principal) + aNa (animation). Everything is animated and changing due to praaNa. Where there is no activity, where all energy is at rest, there is nothing but the soul or the assertion-less self or aatman or Universal Oneness and from there praaNa originates. Who is mentioned as praaNa in veda (aagama) is the same one who is mentioned as kaala in tantra (nigaama). âkaalaâ is felt by us as âtimeâ. Now âaatmanâ is also called âsvaâ (âsvayamâ ) and âkaalaâ time is called âshvaâ. Also, the word âashvaâ means âpraaNaâ. However, commonly, the word âashvaâ means âa horseâ. The words âsvaâ and âshvaâ both represents two fundamental states of the Universal Consciousness. âsvaâ means âsu + aâ---meaning the One who is characterized by bliss or âsukhaâ. âsu + aâ also means flow (su ) of a(aatman)âflow of the Universal soul. This flow is praaNa. âshvaâ means âshu + aââmeaning that is characterized by âshaktiâ or energy or motion. The word âshuâ is from the root word âshavâ, which means âto changeâ. Thus, âshvaâ is the power or shakti of the Universal Consciousness by which the Consciousness brings about changes. So, as stated above, âsvaâ and âshvaâ are both the properties of the Universal Soul or the Universal Consciousness who is the origin of everything, cause of everything and the element (constituent) of everything. One state of the Universal Consciousness is absolute Oneness or absolute bliss and the other state of the Universal consciousness is active, emitting energy, multiplying the Oneness into duality, into many. Though One, the Consciousness is becoming different, becoming dual and still remaining the One. There is nothing other than the Universal One and so it is the Universal One as activity, as energy is bringing change in everything. By this activity, by this flow of energy we are travelling from childhood to maturity, from maturity to old age and so on. We call this aging---but this is praaNa (when we feel it inside) and we call âkaalaâ or time in external sense This is behind the process of cycles of creation, existence and termination; in this process, each of us is evolving. The activity of the Universal Consciousness is creating many out of One; everyone, every entity that is created is being taken back by the Universal Consciousness in the Universal Oneness. Thus, with each creation there is a motion of the creature toward the source. This is appearing as the evolution of every entity and this is appearing as the multiple cycles of âbirth, existence and death and re-birthâ¦.â This active Universal Consciousness or praaNaâ is in us and thatâs why we are animated. Thus, Vedas have hailed praaNa as âaa~Ngirasaâ meaning rasa or the elixir or marrow of the anga or body. This Universal Consciousness or praaNa as the universe is always keeping us live and conscious by revealing Himself/ Herself in us as sound, touch, light, taste and smell; nourishing us. praaNa is flowing in us as the senses and becoming our part and parcel. This is âmedhaaâ or âsapâ or âmarrowââ becoming our life in us, our vitality. Following this aspect of âpraaNaâ or âashvaâ, the word âashvamedhaâ has been created. Thus âpraaNaâ is sacrificing in us, and this is called âashvamedhaâ and the ritual of horse sacrifice is based on this. In the other way, our running around riding the horses (which are our sensory organs and other associated organs) is by the inspirations or by the controlling action of the âpraaNaâ. As we realize that our motions in the senses are by the action of the âUniversal senseâ, we also realize that our senses and actions are parts of the senses and actions of praaNa or of Universal Consciousness. Thus, these horses (the eyes, ears etc.) start merging in the Universal Consciousness; so, this is also âsacrificeâ. This sacrifice ultimately leads us beyond death, beyond decay. The senses donât decay and die any more. The senses become super i.e. the senses transcend death or limitation; so, then what is unheard is also heard, what is unseen is also seen, what is unknown is also known. This âknowledgeâ is worshipped by performing the ceremony of âhorse sacrificeâ or âashva medha yaj~naâ, a ceremony used to be famous in those days of Vedic era. The seers have narrated in the veda that this Universal Consciousness, that this praaNa is carrying us as âhorseâ (haya / ashva) from the death to the eternity. Further, they ( in Upanishad ) have named this praaNa as the goddess âdUr âbecause the death remains away from her. âdUrâ means distance in Sanskrit. The âdeathâ always remains at a distance from the goddess. The goddess âdurgaâ is the goddess âdUrâ. Upanishad has mentioned âmRityu (death) aetasmat (from her) dUram (distance) gacchati(goes)â (the death goes away from her). These two words âdUramâ (distance) and âgachhatiâ (goes away) together make the word âdUrgaâ. Even these days the goddess âdurgaâ is worshipped in India and the knowledge on which this worship is founded is the same knowledge on which the âhorse sacrificeâ or âashva medha yaj~naâ is based. Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad is a part of shukla yajur veda. yajur means âjoiningâ. That we are connected to the Universal Consciousness and that Universal Consciousness is connected to us---- this joining, communication and correspondence of the praaNa or Universal Consciousness is the foundation of all the sacred words laid in yajur veda. In the form of sound, touch, vision, taste and smell, the senses are coming from the external or from the Universal Consciousness to us and thus praaNa is entering in us and getting in us all the time. In a reciprocating manner, we are getting active, using our sensory and associated organs to interact with the external world and getting merged with the external or with the Universal Consciousness. This is how praaNa is merging in us and we are also merging in praaNa. This is sacrifice. Both the motions, praaNa coming in us and we going to praaNa are represented in us as âin breathingâ (nishvaasa) and out breathing (prashvaasa). Both are the steps of the horse, âashvaâ. Also, the regulations of these two and fro motions are controlled by two deities who are twins and known as ashvin (meaning related to âashva or horseâ or âpossessing horsesâ). All illness can be healed by the praaNa; all illness praaNa can heal by praaNaâs regulation in us. This provides the clue as to why the ashvin-s have been described as the divine doctors in the Vedas. They replaced the head of the seer âdadhikraaâ by a âhorse headâ so that the seer becomes eligible to receive âmadhuvidyaâ (the knowledge of the sweetness of Universal Consciousness) from âindra. Thus, praaNa is merging in us, becoming our life, our spirit, our âbeingâ. This spirit, this elixir or this juice is âmedhaâ. Accordingly the Vedas have hailed praaNa as âangirasaâ meaning âangam (of the limbs) rasa (juice, spirit)----the spirits of the organs and limbs. praaNa is sacrificing by becoming our âmedhaâ. By getting ourselves active in the âpraaNaâ we are sacrificing ourselves to praaNa. In this way we are automatically crossing the boundary of our limitations, evolving and getting merged in the Universal Consciousness or praaNa. It is noteworthy that the goddess âdurgaâ also belongs to âyajur vedaâ. The name of an animal has been given by the seers by observing how the Universal Consciousness or praaNa is active in it characterizing the creature---i.e. the name characterizes how the divinity is present in the creature to characterize the animal. Like, in a horse, the strength and vitality, motion, the habit of carrying, all time activeness, firmness etc. are quite vivid. Thus, the species named âhorseâ is called âashvaâ. For similar reasons, a dog in Sanskrit is called âshva (time/kala/praaNa)â. It is because a dog follows its master religiously. They always follow the rules of the âtimeâ or the âmasterâ. May be the word âdogmaâ was created in the same sense. Similarly, a predator is called âshvaapadaâ. Like the time (shva) runs after us (padaâfoot) and snatches away our life at some (pre- determined) moment, like predator {preâdat(e)-or} following its prey and devouring it. (It is noteworthy that the root word shvi means âto swellâ and implies the growing Consciousness. Thus in Brihadaaranyaka, the seer has mentioned the swelling or growing of the Consciousness by the word âashvatâ (derived from the verb shvi) meaning âinflated or swelled in a sphereâ and has related it to the word âashvaââ¦.Brihadaaranyakaâ1/2/7.) Like we are created with forms and definition, with bodies and limbs by the Universal Consciousness, similarly this expressed Universe is the existence of praaNa as a personality with appearance, with body, organs and limbs. As praaNa is limitless, unbounded, so is the knowledge and vision of the seers who know praaNa. Thus RiShi, the seer yaaj~navalka, narrated seamlessly the body and organs of a horse and those of the Universal consciousness (as the formed universe) in one go in this part of the Upanishad (upaniShad). bRihadaaraNyaka upaniShad is a part of the branch (shaakhaa) named âyaaj~navalkaâ which is also the name of the seer who has narrated this part and many other parts of bRihadaaraNyaka upaniShad. Below is quotation on yaj~navalkya from my guru --- the great seer âBijoyKrishna Chattopadhyaayaâ Quote âThere are two parts in the word âyaaj~navalkaâ----yaaj~na and valkaâ. One is yaj~na= ya (who) + j~na (knower)---the One who is knower (Consciousness is knowing and everything is the form of the knowledge of Consciousness) and valka meaning bark of a tree (embracing the trunk and stems) i.e. the universe or the creation embracing the creator (knower). It is just not j~na (the knower, the Consciousness who is knowing) it is along with valkaâ (bark or the creation or formation out of the âknowingâ); it cannot happen just with j~na (the knower), it has to be also with valka (the bark or the creation); the tree dies if the bark is removed. Thus this name (yaj~navalka) connects two----the knower and the knowledge i.e. the knower and the universe embracing the knower; for this reason yaj~navalka had two gurus (teachers) named vaishampaayana and aditya. yaj~navalka thus had everything in pair. Not only two gurus, he had two wives ---kaatyaayanI and maItreI âkaatyaayanIâ means âkati (so many) ayana ( forms)---in how many forms you are there! And, mayItreI is the Shakti (power or consort) of âmitraâ or âadityaâ. ( Note: mitra and aditya are the names of the sun. aditya is the son of aditi {who is without duality)}. Sun is also called aditya (the center of oneness) because everyone is synchronized to the sun or the center of oneness.) katayanI means âso many forms, shapes and hues!â. (katayanI is the Universal Consciousness as expressed universe in many forms, dimensions and shapes; maItreI is the Universal Consciousness who is holding or regarding the universe in Oneness (aditya)) yaj~navalkyaâs teachings are also of two types---âbrahma exists in two formsâ dve vaavo brahmaNo rupeâ (âthere are two forms of brahmaâ). Further he composed two Vedas ---kriShNa yajur veada and shukla yajur veda. One day yaj~navalkya announced: âmaItreI now I will depart for the wilderness! Then he decided to distribute his properties between his two wives. But maItreI told ----I donât need anything; let everything remain with kaatyaanI, I am going to accompany you. Let kaatyaaNI remain as kaatyaaNIâlet the world continue to remain as world---I will enter in the Oneness---tat vanam iti upaasitavyamâ (He is to be worshipped as the great wilderness---within which everything grows).â Unquote (The above is quoted from veda-vaaNI---26th volume, page 37-45.) We present below the original text of the first Chapter first part (braahmiN) with word by word meaning and brief explanation by following the teaching that we have learnt. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- shaanti mantra (Words those bring peace.) oM purNamadha (oM, that is whole) purNamidam (This is whole) purNaat purNam udachatye (From the whole emerges the whole) purNasya purNam aadaya (When the whole is taken out of the whole) purNameva avaShishyate (What is left is indeed the whole.) oM shaantiH oM shaantiH oM shaantiH (oM peace be there, oM peace be there, oM peace be there) First Brahmin (Chapter) {prathama braahmaNa } 1.1.1 (a) om uShaa vaa ashvasya medhyasya shiraH om (Om) uShaa (Ushaa is) vai (verily) ashvasya (horseâs) medhyasya (sacrificial) shiraH (head). om uShaa (the goddess of dawn) is verily the head of the sacrificial horse. (b) sUryashchakShUrvaataH praaNo sUryah (The sun is) chakShuH (the eye); vaataH (the air is) praaNaH (praaNa or the life). The sun is its eyes; the air is the life (praaNa) flowing in it. (c) vyaattamagnirvaishvaanaraH vyattam (the gaped mouth is) agniH (the Fire) vaishvaanaraH The gaped mouth is the Fire vaishvaanara. (d) saMvatsara aatmaashvasya medhyasya. saMvatsaraH (a full year) aatmaa (soul /nature) ashvasya (of the horse) medhyasya (sacrificial). The annual cycles are due to habitual action of the sacrificial horse. ( e) dyauH pRiShThamantarikShamudaraM dyauH (the divinity) pRiShTham (is posterior); antarikSham (the inner sky) udaram (is stomach) The heaven (divinity) is its posterior; the inner sky is its stomach. (f) pRithivI paajasyam pRithivI (the earth is) paajyasyam (the hoofs) The earth is its hoofs. (h) dishaH paarshve avaantaradishaH parshava dishaH (the directions) paarshve (are the sides) avantara (other or intermediate) dishaH (directions) parshavaH (the other sides / ribs) The directions are its sides; the intermediate directions are its ribs. (i) Ritavo a~Ngaani maasaashchaardhamaasaashcha parvaaNyahoraatraaNi pratiShThaa RitavaH (the seasons are) a~Ngaani (body and the limbs) maasaH (the months) cha (and) ardhamaasah (fortnights) cha (and) parvaaNi (the layers) ahaH (the day) raatraNi (the nights) praaTiShThaa (status) The seasons are the limbs; the months and the fortnights are the layers; the days and the nights are its status. (j) nakShatraaNyasthIni nabho maaMsaani nakshatraaNi (the stars are) asthIni (the bones); nabhaH (the atmosphere) maaMsaani (the flesh) The stars are its bones; the atmosphere is its flesh. (k) UvadhyaM sikataaH UvadhyaM (the undigested foods are) sikataaH (the sands) Uvadhya---U / Una (not) + vadhya (killed or digested); The undigested foods are the sands. (l) sindhavo gudaa sindhavaH (the rivers are the) gudaa (guts /channels/entrails ) The flowing rivers are the channels and entrails. (m) yakRichcha klomaanashcha parvataa yakRit (the liver) cha (and) klomanaH (colon) cha (and) parvataaH (the hills) The liver and the colon are the hills and rugged terrains. (n) oShadhayashcha vanaspatayashcha lomaani oShadhyaH (the herbs and plants) cha vanaspatyaH (trees providing shelters) cha (and) lomaani (body hairs) The plants, herbs and the nurturing trees are the body hairs. (o) udyan pUrvaardho udyan (risingârising sun) pUrva (eastern /frontal) ardhaH (half) part The rising sun is its frontal part. (p) nimlocha~njaghanaardho nimlochana (going downâsetting sun) jaghana (hind) ardhaH (half / part The descending or the setting sun is its hind part. (q) yadvijRimbhate tadvidyotate yad (that) vijRimbhate (it yawns) tad (that is) vidyotate (lightning) That it yawns, that is the lightning. (r) yadvidhUnute tat stanayati yad (that) vidhUnute (it shakes the body and brushes off dust) tat (that) stanayati (rumbling of clouds) That it brushes the dirt (off the skin), that is the rumbling of clouds. (s) yanmehati tadvarShati yad (that) mehati (it effuses) tad (that) varShati (rains) That it effuses is the rain. (t) vaagevaasya vak vaak (vakâthe shakti or the goddess who is the root of all words or expression) aeva (indeed) asya (its) vaak (words). vaak (the goddess who is the root of all words) is its vaak (vaakyaâ words---formed or processed words.) vaak indeed is its vaak. nirukta ---Inner meaning { nirukta ---niH (nija / soul) + ukta(uttered)âUttered by the soul (Revealed in the soul) } 1) omâ When the universal soul ( universal oneness) { whom everyone is feeling as oneâs (assertion-less) self or oneâs soul} expresses, the first expression is âomâ. The first expression of the Consciousness is the âwordâ. This is why everything in this world has a name, has a definition. In this first word âomâ, exist whatever can be expressed by a word or a sound. In this expression âomâ exist whatever was created, whatever is being created, whatever will be created. In Chandogya Upanishad, âomâ has been also described as an âanuj~naa (granting) akShara (word)â or as an âOKâ from the Universal Consciousness. 2) ashva---âashvaâ means the one from whom âshvaâ or the âtimeâ is flowing out---it is the source of time and time in action. As stated earlier âshvaâ means âtimeâ. Some connected words are âparashvaâ meaning âday after tomorrowâ, or ânashvaraâ means âmomentary or mortalâ. The animal in whom the aspects of time like motion, strength, rigidity, âbeing always on feetâ etc. are vivid are also called âashvaâ or âhorseâ. When the âAbsolute Oneâ or the âUniversal Soulâ, whom everyone feels as oneâs (assertion-less) self, becomes active, the active form is called âpraaNaâ (the life-god). This activity is animation in us. praaNa is ashva. 3) medhyaâmedhya means who or what can âmergeâ--- who enters us and mixes with us and merges in us. This Universal Active Consciousness, who is the dynamism, life, animation, vibration everywhere, in every being, who is always entering in us as our senses, as sound, touch, vision, taste and smell and merging in us, becoming our âmedhaaâ, our sap, our vitality, our âbeingâ. 4) uShaa---uShaa means who makes everyone uSh~na or warm by the fervor of consciousness or life. uShaa is also the goddess of dawn. uShaa is the one who ushers everything in us. Everything dawns in us by her. Thus, uShaa is the head of ashva or praaNa because this dawn, this rise from the darkness or transition from death to light or to eternity is the first thing which dawns in us as we approach praaNa. 5) sUryaH (sun) chakShuH (eye)âthe sun is its eyes. sUrya (sun)= sU (sUchana= beginning, start) + Ri (motion and vision or dimension) + ya (yamana= control)-----by whom everything or every event is initiated, and then it is set in motion and then it is provided with dimensions or a form (or a vision is created) and also who is the controlling center of this initiation and formation. chakShu (eye)---cha +kSha +u; cha= chamana (act of sipping) kSha= kSharaNa= to flow, to decay, flow of time chakShu= center from which everything is flowing out and whatever is flowing out is also sipped and tasted---this is eye (in us) or the sun (in the external space) where our feelings or visions are created and accordingly we are moving or flowing in the stream of time. Where all our feelings are flagrant, are revealing splendidly, that centre is called âeyeâ. This flagrant, revealing aspect of the eye or the Consciousness is called vision and is appearing as the sun in the physical space or the sky. The feelings in us and the consequent changes and formation of us by the feelings are controlled in the centre called moon. Thus, moon is called âsomaâ and is the centre where all soma or elixir or the feelings are stored. It (the moon internal and in external) is the centre of feelings. The light of the sun is absorbed and reflected by the moon and it becomes its own light, similarly the senses coming in us from the Universal Consciousness is getting absorbed in us and is constructing us, merging with us. Thus, there is an expression of Consciousness called âvisionâ and there is âfeeling or knowingâ everything that is being expressed or created in consciousness--- this is the âsipping of somaâ. So indra, the divine or the eternal observer is called âsomapaayIâ which means the one who drinks âsomaâ. In Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, yaj~navalkya has said that the entity or the one who is residing in the eye is called âindhaâ as well as indraâ. indha means who is flagrant or illuminated, i.e. who is revealing. indra means âidam (it) + dra (draShTRiâobserver /seer), i.e. who is observing whatever is being reveled. Thus, indra is feeling or knowing or regaling every revelation. As mentioned above, there is a component, âkSh(a)â in the word âchakShuâ. âkShaâ means âkSharaNaâ or decay or the action of time. The connected word âkhaNaâ means âmomentâ. Thus, the revealing source of time in us is our âeyesâ and is the sun in the external space. This is why the Vedic word âIkShaNaâ (I + kShaNa) means to see as well as âaction of timeâ. 6) vaataH praaNah---vaata or air is the âflowing lifeâ or âpraaNaâ.The word vaata is from the root word âvaatâ meaning âflow of airâ. It is the flowing Consciousness, who is internally flowing in everyone. In the external it is called air or vaayu. Inside it is life or aayu. Its nature is to exercise (to flow) and maintain connectivity. Thus, god vaayu (Air) has been mentioned in the first hymn of yajur (joining) veda, implying âjoiningâ or âconnectivityâ. 7) vyaattam agniH vaishvaanaraH vyaattaâvyaatta means the gaped open mouth. vyaattaâvi + aatta vi---in different directions aatta---seized, grasped vyaatta---everything is grasped or taken within the gape of its mouth. The word mouth is âmukhaâ in Sanskrit. mukha also means âchiefâ or âprincipalâ. The active Universal Consciousness or Universal praaNa is called mukhya praaNa. mukha (mouth) is the seat of mukhya praaNa. Mouth or mukha is the seat of all the sensory organs. mukha----mu (mouth, source) + kha (sky) (inner sky) is the source of all feelings or the seat of the feelings----from here all the feelings are coming out or revealing. From the sky or the void within the mouth, the words or the senses are coming out as expressions. These words are the expressions of the Consciousness and formed by the expressive power or shakti called vaak who is the mother of all words. Upanishad has mentioned vaak as the shakti of praaNa or shakti of agni. agni is the âfire godâ or the âself- revealing dynamic Consciousnessâ. It is for this reason vedas have cited âvaak vai agniâ (vaak is agni ), âmukhat agnih ajayataâ ( agni or fire was created from the mouth). So here in this text, it is mentioned âvyaattam agniHâ. 8) vaishvaanaraâvishvaa + nara. vishvaa is derived from the word vishva. The word vishva means âuniverseâ. vishva---vi (in all directions) + shva (the flow of time or life, breathing in all directions)----the spread of praaNa or Consciousness in all directions. nara means âa manâ. nara---na (certainly) + Ri (to move) nara---through whom the Consciousness is spreading. Another connected word ânaari âmeans âpulseâ. {In the Bengali (Bangla) language (one of the Indian languages mainly comprising of Sanskrit words or words derived from Sanskrit) the word ânaraaâ means to âmoveâ or âto change stateâ.} vaishvaanara : So, vaishvaanara means the Universal Consciousness or the praaNa who has created every one and who like the âspokes of a wheelâ (araa) is spreading or flowing in everyone, in everything. vaishvaanara is the universal pulse. 9) saMvatsara (a full year) aatmaa ( is nature) ashvasya (of the horse) medhyasya (who is sacrificial) samvatsara---sama + vatsara. sama = perfect or complete; something that is duly done; something which is synchronized (sama =same) with the Soul. vatsa means an offspring. vatsa= vat (like) + sa (saHâhe/ she/it)---like praaNa. A child resembles its parent. samvatsara means a âfull or complete yearâ and is the time to rear the child or offspring perfectly. Whatever has been created from the Universal praaNa or the Universal Consciousness is a part or fraction of the Universal Consciousness (though each fraction is âwholeâ also!). All such parted souls are having separate identity. They are going back to the source from where they are originated. The time taken for this complete cycle is called samvatsara. It is the time duration in which each parted soul returns to the source. This is why it is stated that samvatsara is the âsoulâ or the ânatureâ of the âsacrificial horseâ because the habit of praaNa is to take back every soul created or separated as duality into Oneness. 10) dyauH (the divinity, the heaven or the divine plane) pRiShTham (backside). dyauâdyuâdiv---divinityâis the plane from where the days are getting revealed or it is the âplane of revelationâ. The significance of the word dyau/dyu/div is the revelation from the soul by the soul, i.e. creation of duality without duality. 11) antarikSham (the inner sky) udaram (is the stomach) antarikSham is the derivative of antarIkSha. antarIkSha----antara (inner, inside) + IkSha/ IkShaNa (viewing, act of time)---where everything is felt or seen inside; where everything is achieved inside is the âinner skyâ or antarIkSha. IkShaNa means âseeing, feeling, flowing of timeâ. âudaramâ is the derivate of the word âudaraâ meaning stomach. udara= ud (upward) + ara (going / spokes of a wheel). udara or the stomach is the centre from where whatever we are acquiring (foods) they are being energized and illumined and propelled upward (toward the soul or oneness). Whatever we take, whatever we eat, that gets digested here, the physical part goes to the body/physicality/earth. The subtle parts go to our mind, to praaNa (emotional or middle plane) and to vaak (the plane above the emotions, where we are in the form of âwordsâ or âmantraâ (where our instincts are seeded). The foods become shining by the touch of Consciousness and are blazed in several colours. Thus, stomach is called âmanipura chakraâ. âmaniâ means âgemsâ. âpuraâ means âabodeâ. âchakraâ means centre. The âinner skyâ, âanatarIkShaâ is the stomach or âudaraâ of the Universal praaNa or Universal consciousness, where we are all held in Her/His inner shine (moon shine) or in âHERâ. She / He is holding us there âsans physicalityâ, âabove the earth and mortalityâ. 12) pRithivI (the earth is the) paajasyam (hoofs) pRithivI (earth) is the one who gives everyone a âpRithakâ or separate âidentityâ or âstatusâ. âpRithakâ means âseparatelyâ. paajasyam (hoofs) is derived from the root word âpajâ meaningâ âto solidify or to hardenâ. Like water freezing into ice, similarly Consciousness burning as fire, revealing and driving everyone, everything, every event and also called praaNaagni (praaNa+agni) has cooled down and condensed as earth or physicality. So, the hoofs are the âearthâ. Further, the word âpaajasâ means âshiningâ, âshining heaven and earthâ as well as it means the ârigidity or resolutenessâ. Like the hoofs of a horse which are rigid and solid, which keep its feet protected from the reactions of motion and from the weight of its body and enable it to remain always on the feet steadily and sturdily, similarly the Universal Consciousness has become the physicality, has become the earth and created the foundation and stability of everyone. What is earth in the external is the body in us. 13) dishaH (the directions) paarshve (are the sides) avantara (other or intermediate) dishaH (directions) parshavaH (are the other sides / ribs) The inclination of Consciousness, the trend or direction, that leads to the creation of âtouchâ (sparsha) is called âsideâ (paarshva). This is why our hands (the organs for touch or sparsha) are located on the âsides (paarshva)â. Example of intermediate direction: When you see a flower, the direction (dik) toward flower is activated or that direction called âflowerâ is created. Then the âcolourâ, âfragranceâ, âshapeâ of that flower come to you or your corresponding senses are activated. Thus, the other directions are created in the Consciousness. Then you get involved in the flower, you get activated, and that is the creation of space or dimensions (desha). The drive (inspiration) you get toward flower is by praaNa or kaala. That in those moments you are driven toward a flower and not toward a food is driven by âtimeâ (kaala). 14) RitavaH (the seasons are) a~Ngaani (the limbs): The word RitavaH is the plural of the word Ritu which means âthe seasonsâ. Ritu is from the root word âRiâ. âRiâ means âto flowâ. The streams of praaNa are the Ritu or the seasons. They flow to make us, our definition, our body and limbs. Thus, the body or the limbs are called âa~Ngaâ. a~Nga= am + ga. âamâ is the âtejaâ or the radiant Consciousness about to split. âgaâ is âgoâ or motion. Thus from the radiance or âdesireâ of the Consciousness we are created and defined in shapes. From praaNa, from âso called external, along the flow of time (kaala) the senses and feelings which are coming to us in streams, are broadly identified as six seasons. In the external sky, the most prominent and physical center of this is the Sun from whom we are getting our life along the years, seasons, months, weeks days and nights. The seasons are six in numbers. (I do remember in my childhood time, during late 50âs and early 60âs we used to get all the six seasons in Bengal.) The number six / ShaT (âsexâ in Latin) represents âsweetnessâ or âhoneyâ. Thus, the Mother Consciousness is imbuing us with streams of âhoneyâ or âsomaâ in HER ceaseless care to raise every grain of the universe to eternity. Whatever SHE (Consciousness) has created SHE knows that as HER own form and as HERSELF. This is the sweetnessâthe two hearts or triangles together making six. Briefly we describe below the six seasons as they are working within us following the explanation of our guru Shri. BijoyKrishna Chattopadhaya: (i) vasanta (Spring): When a sense or an event comes to you, it shrouds you with it. It becomes your cover or dress. This dress is called vasana. You sit on it or reside in it. This seat or residence is vaasa. (ii) gRiShma (Summer)âThe word gRiShma is from the root word gras meaning âto eatâ, âto devourâ. What comes to you and covers you with a dress (Spring), you eat it. It starts going into you. You get the heat or the spice or calorie out of it. (iii) varShaa (Rainy season, monsoon)----What you eat and chew, it rains the taste in you. The more you chew it, more you get into it. More its spirit, its juice, its perceptions fill you. This is rain and you get wet. (iv) sharada (Autumn)---As you digest the same, it becomes your part, your constituent. You know it; you rely on what you know or experience. It gives you a shelter or reliance. (v) hemanta (pre-winter)---- It is from the root word him or hIM which is the expression of Consciousness that represents âcertaintyâ). (Refer âhIM/hImkaara in Chandogya Upanishad). This is the maturity of your knowledge or experience you get during âautumnâ as mentioned in iv) above. This makes you certain on something which you have learnt from experience or âknowingâ. (vi) shIta / shishira (Winter)--- Both the words are from the root word shyai meaning âto congeal or to freeze. What we learn through experience, finally it becomes frozen or rock heard in us. It becomes our instinct. This is the âclear winter skyâ. This is pitRiloka or the domain of the divine fathers. This is the domain where our instincts are located. 15) maasaaH (months) cha (and) ardhamaasaaH (fortnights) cha (so/and) parvaaNi (layers): The months and the fortnights are the layers of its body Month and fortnight means a lunar month or the two lunar periods of waxing and waning phases. Moon is that center of the Universal consciousness from where or by whom the flow of senses which merge in us is administered, regulated, proportioned and absorbed. So, what is effusing from moon is âsomaâ the elixir. The waxing and waning periods together make a month or a maasa; the English word âtogetherâ is âsamaasaâ (sa + maasa) in Sanskrit. We are waxing and waning in our reflections, in our feelings; in the lunar dimension of ours and we are being thus constructed. soma, elixir, is the flow of senses streaming from the Universal Consciousness to blend in us. 16) ahaH (days) raatrani (nights) (are the) status. The two words aha(day) and aham (I am) convey the same meaning. This has been mentioned in Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad. aha (day) and aham (I am), both are the assertions of praaNa or the Consciousness. In the morning, when we get up from the sleep, the first thing that comes in the Consciousness is âI amâ. This revelation of praaNa, this revelation of active Universal Consciousness has been described by the words âhanta ahamâ in Chandogya Upanishad. The word âhantaâ is an exclamatory expression in Sanskrit and is derived as âaahaaâ in some Indian languages. It is an âheart feltâ expression. It is notable that âhantaâ is also an exclamatory word in Japanese. From this exclamation of the Universal Consciousness, the sense that we call âdayâ or âahaâ and the sense that is called âahamâ (I am) are created in all of us. âraatriâ (night) means âdaatRiâ or âthe goddess who gives us everythingâ. Whatever we get throughout the day, whatever every moment brings in us, it comes from the âkingdom of nightâ. The black, obscurity contains everything that is perceived by us as âdayâ or ârevelationâ or âperception of sensesâ. In us, at every moment, a sense or a feeling is coming and it is getting replaced by another one. Thus, in every moment there is a âriseâ and there is a âsettingâ of the sun or the Consciousness who controls our time. This is why we are called âaho (day)-ratro(night)-maya (characterized)â---- beings characterized by âday & nightâ. (This is also the root of âcircadian rhythmâ.) 17) nakshaatraaNi (the stars are) asThIni (the bones) nakShatra---na (like /similar to) kShatra (kShatra---the kShatriya race); kShatra or kShatriya are those who protect others from kShata or âwoundâ. Thus, kShatriya is the name of the race of warriors protecting others from invasion. kShatra---kShahta (wound /decay) + tra (traaNa or relief)----who relieves from wound or decayâwho helps to see our immortal soul. The stars and constellations are those personalities of the Universal Consciousness, in whose locations aging mortality (which are characters in planets) are absent or not felt. There it is the endless day or constant revelation and time is not characterized as the sequence of day & night (aho-raatro). These stars, the self-revealing, radiating personalities of the Universal Consciousness (under the leadership of Universal Moon or soma) are making the constellations or geometries to refract or modulate the abundant flow of soma (the rays flowing out of moon) or the flow of senses (from the Universal Consciousness) to everyone, to every destiny, thus making our destiny and fixing our stay or status. This is âasthiâ or bones. asthi---as (ayam /this) sthiti (stay)â. 18) nabhaH (the atmosphere) maaMsaani (the flesh) nabho (the atmosphere) (are the) maaMsaani (fleshes): âmaaMsaaniâ meaning âfleshesâ is derived from the root word âmaMsaâ meaning âfleshâ. This body, this physicality, is the formation of Consciousness. The way the Consciousness is knowing, correspondingly the body and the limbs are formed. Activity of Consciousness is âknowingâ. Everything is the âknowledge of Consciousnessâ---this physicality has also been formed in the âknowledgeâ or in the âConsciousnessâ. Thus, in every part of the body, the senses or the words of the Consciousness are embedded. The stars are the bones. nabha/nabhas (atmosphere) is the embrace of praaNa, embrace of the Consciousness. Like the flesh embracing the bones. (maMsa = flesh----maM (mine) + sa (he/she)âShe/he is mine. Atmosphere = atmo---aatman (soul) + sphereâsphuraNa(manifestation)) 19) UvadhyaM sikataaH (the sands). UvadhyaâU / Una (not) + vadhya (killed); Uvadhya means which is not killed or digested. sikataaH derived from the word âsiktaâ which means âsoakedâ and the corresponding root word is âsic / sik â. Whatever is still under digestion or undigested foods in the belly of the âhorseâ are the sands. 20) sindhavah (the flowing rivers) gudaah (intestines). The word sindhava is the plural of the word âsindhuâ. âsindhuâ means the âflowing riverâ. sindhu is from the root word âsidhâ. âsidhâ means âto flow towards the objective or toward what is âdesiredâ. The objective of a river is to meet the âseaâ. Thus in the context of this meaning (confluence), âsindhuâ also means âseaâ in addition to a âflowing riverâ. gudaaH--- (intestines / channels); guda----gut---gastrointestinal tract or channel. praaNa has laid the channels to bring back the separated souls or to assimilate whatever is of desire, whatever to be achieved / acquired. To make it to merge, to bring back all the separated soul in the Oneness, the channels are laid out by praaNa and are these flowing rivers or âgudaHâ. (Bengali or Bangla language is a derived language from Sanskrit. âgudaâ in Bengali means âvaginaâ. Vagina is the channel through which we come out from the ONE or the Mother as a separate entity and also it is the channel through which we can enter âHERâ who is âshaktiâ. It may be noted that every part of the physical body represents an aspect of the Universal Consciousness.) 21) yakRit cha klomanH cha (the liver and the colon) (are) parvataH (hills) âyakRitâ means the âliverâ. yakRit---yat (in line with) + kRit (deed or performance). The way you live, your future is constructed in that way. This is âkarmanâ (karma / deeds) and âphalaâ (consequences). The way you live or you perform, is actually the way you âfeel or senseâ or the way you are active in your Consciousness. The way you feel, sense and digest, you are transformed accordingly and your future is also taking the form accordingly. So, this is how the âliverâ or the center called âliverâ or âyaKritâ in Consciousness is working. The action of yakRit is to transform you as you digest; how will you digest depends on such action and such action depends on your deeds or how you live in your Consciousness. klomana--- colon ----The function of colon is to purge or expel what is unwanted It is noteworthy that stones are formed in this part of the body when it does not function well. It may be because of this feature as well as the channels, these parts of the âhorseâ have been termed as âparvataâ or âhills / rugged terrainâ (and there must be more mysteries which are the reasons behind word âhillâ). 22) oShadhyaH (the herbs and plants) cha (trees providing shelters) vanaspatyaH cha (and) lomaani (body hairs) The plants, herbs and the nurturing trees are the body hairs. oShadhi / oShadhI ---who holds or preserves the âoShâ or the uShmaa or warmth of praaNa (the Life god) and through whom this warmth or vigour is entering us. This vigour is held predominantly and explicitly by the vegetation and plants. The lunar centre revealed as moon in the physical sky is the centre of âsomaâ and controls the saps in the vegetation and plants and in everywhere and in every being. The herbs, the plants and creepers etc. are also called âoShadhiâ as the extracts from them make the medicine and heal the ailments. By the regulation of praaNa or by oShadhi, the flow of life in us becomes balanced and normalized; the disease is cured. vanaspati---vanaH + pati ; vanaH is derived from the word âvanaâ. âvanaâ and ânavaâ are âretroverted wordsâ. Thus âvanaâ means âoldâ or âwho does not changeâ and ânavaâ means ânewâ. âvanaâ means who is before everyone or everything. The One who is âvanaâ, who is pristine and before anyone, is the abode and shelter of all the beings. This is why forests are also called âvanaâ in Sanskrit. âpatiâ means lord. This âgreat forestâ is harbouring everyone of the Universe with its great trees having sturdy trunks, spreading branches, flowers and fruits and the roots ending in the eternity. This is why, in the language of Sanskrit the magnificent trees are called âvanaspatiâ. loma--The word âlomaâ and âromaâ both mean âbody hairâ. The word âromaâ is from the root word âruhâ meaning âto growâ. The growth from the touch of Consciousness or praaNa is the air. The word âlomaâ means âthe one who is aligned with the flowâ. Thus âanulomaâ means along the flow and âvilomaâ means against the flow. The body hairs represent this flow of sap, the undercurrent of Consciousness on which the physicality has formed. The water percolates through the soil, flows and spray life or soma and the vegetation, herbs and plants sprout. Similar are the body hairs and the body hairs of the âhorseâ. 23) udyan (rising âthe rising sun) pUrva ardhaH (the front, frontal part). Everyone rises by the praaNa, by the drive of Consciousness. When praaNa rises in a particular way in us or raises a thing or an event in us, the direction âeastâ is formed. The desire of the Universal consciousness motivates or moves everyone; time is created from this desire and also the days and nights, diurnal motion. Whatever rises, whatever is rising, is the frontal part of praaNa and the east--- the direction where the face is located. (East is from the Sanskrit word iShTa meaning âdesiredâ. The sun rises, praaNa rises, to bring the âdesiredâ in us. (This is why the Sun god is called mitra meaning âfriendâ. Also he is mitra because he embraces us with âonenessâ). 24) nimlochana (going downâsetting sun) jaghana (hind) ardhaH (half / part). nimlochana is derived from the word ânimlochaâ which means âsetting of the sunâ. The word ânimlochaâ is from the root word âmluchâ which means âto move downwardâ, âto bring to restâ. The realm of the deity lord varuNa is ânimlochaniâ The west is the direction where the things remain covered Whenever a sense or a feeling comes in us, rises in us, everything else gets covered or shrouded at that moment. Suppose you are reading and then someone calls you, you then get into that âcallâ or the âcallâ rises, and the âreadingâ sets down. This rising Consciousness is called mitra. When the Consciousness covers or shrouds everything, Consciousness is called varuna. varuNa is related to the word aavaraNa meaning âa cover or a shroudâ and both the words are from the root word vRi meaning âto cover or to concealâ. The deities mitra and varuNa are paired Vedic deities. âjaghanaâ means âpart of the body that contains loins and hipsâ. âjaghanaâ = âjaâ (generated) + âghana (dense)â----from where the âdensityâ / âsolidityâ or âphysicalityâ is generated. Also, it means: ja (jalaâwater) + ghana (dense)---where water or liquidity becomes dense and becomes the solid earth or physicality. This vast expanse of water body, the oceans, which belong to the kingdom of varuNa, are reigning over the physicality and behind the changes of the hard rocks and the soils---behind the formation and transformation of physicality. What is earth in the external is same as the body in us. It is for this reason, the âvaginaâ is part of the âjaghanaâ, or in the region of âloins and hipsâ; it is the place from where we come out from the motherâs womb after the âwaterâ breaks and then we get connected to the external earth or physicality. This setting sun is the hinder part or the âjaghanaâ of this celestial horse, of our praaNa. 25) yad (that it) vijRimbhate (yawns) tad (that is) vidyotate (lightning) vijRimbhate is derived from the word âvijRimbhanaâ meaning âto yawnâ. This word originates from the root word âjRimbhâ. âYawnâ reveals the âvoidâ or the âskyâ. It reveals the state of âneutralityâ from where a âspecifiedâ or a âdefinedâ thing or an event is created. Thus, we yawn when we are sleepy or when we are bore i.e. when there is no particular spirit in us. This âyawnâ is like our âinner skyâ getting extended or connected to the âouter skyâ. This âvoidâ, this âskyâ which is the same in external as well as in internal is the neutral field behind every creation. This is not just void or âinaneâ, it is the neutrality of the âUniversal Consciousnessâ. The sky is called âaakaashaâ in Sanskrit meaning the âkaashaâ or radiance of âaaâ or âaatmanâ or âsoulâ. (Thus the physical space or void is full of energy.) Because of our obsession in physicality we find this void as âinaneâ. The root word âjRimbhâ mentioned above can be broken into âjRiâ + âambha(s). The general meaning of the word âambhasâ is âwaterâ. âambhasâ is âamâ (radiation, teja) + bha (bearing; bhRi means âto bearâ or âto holdâ. âambhasâ is the âwater bearing the heatâ or the âradiating waterâ or âwater that condenses or becomes rain to create what has been radiated out of the desire of Consciousnessâ. It also means âthe cloud bearing water and electricityâ. jRi means âto come near, to approachâ. Thus âjRimbhâ means to move or approach to create or reveal or rain. So the seer has said as it yawns it flashes âlightningâ. vidyotate---flashes electricity or lightning. vidyotate is derived from the word âvidyutâ meaning âelectricityâ. The word âvidyutâ is from the root word dyutâ. âdyutâ means âto shineâ and also âto tear apartâ. Here in this sky, in this state of neutrality, the Universal Consciousness flashes electricity. The creation exhibits âradiationâ and âsplittingâ, tearing apart the âonenessâ into duality. In the word âvijRimbhanaâ the word âvi â means âmanyâ or âvariousâ. This means, it (yawning) is the act of revealing the specifics of âpraaNaâ or of âUniversal Consciousness. Thus, specific creatures and universes are created; thus is the multiplication of Oneness into many. For example, âwhatever could be the kind of flowerâ, âwhatever is conveyed by the concept âflowerâ, whatever kind of flower was/is and will be in anywhere and in any time, is seeded in the space or the sky of flowerâ. In this âvoidâ or space all the âdirectionsâ or âinclinationsâ of praNa or Universal Consciousness are held in equilibrium. This is why space is generally felt as âsphericalâ. Thus, as a state of equilibrium this âspaceâ or âvoidâ is neutral. The physical space is the root of physicality. The gap between two physical objects is this void as felt in physicality. This space is full of directions or propensities of praaNa. So, in the direction called âflowerâ, in that âdirectionâ all kind, flowers of all time and space exist. This way of revealing or creating is lightning or electricity. So, electricity or âvidyutâ also means âvidâ (existence) + ut (supreme) or supreme state of existence. In these directions of Consciousness when we can identify ourselves, we realize our supreme state of existence which is sans physicality, sans any limitation. As all directions are held in equilibrium in the sky, so we see it round from the earth. It is true that the sky is round because the earth is spherical but this truth reveals the deeper truth that directions are in equilibrium in the sky or in the state of neutrality. 26) yad (that) vidhUnute (it shakes the body and brushes off dust) tat (that) stanayati (rumbling of clouds) vidhUnute is from the root word âvi-dhUâ meaning to âshake offâ, âto disperseâ. By this shake, by this action of praaNa or the air, the clouds are dispersed or moved. Cloud is called âmeghaâ and is from the root word âmihâ or âmighâ meaning âto sprinkleâ or âto make waterâ The rumble of the clouds is called âstanaitnuâ which means the expression of the Mother consciousness to feed the creation with Her breast milk. The word âstanaâ means âbreastâ and is from the root word âstanâ meaning âto roar or thunderâ. The word âstananaâ means âsoundâ. The âwordsâ in us rain the âmeaningsâ. The Consciousness as âgoddess vaakâ, as the mother of the âwordsâ are feeding us with senses, with life and vitality stana= sta (stu / praise) +ana/an (praaNa)---the self-praising, self-nourishing âwordâ or âgoddess vaakâ. From âstanaâ the milk effuses to build us. (Thus, the breasts are located below the neck, the organ of voice.) 27) yad (that) mehati (milks herself or effuses) tad (then) varShati (it rains). This rain is the ârain of lifeâ coming out of the ONE or the Universal soul, effusing all over the universe out of the self-praising, self- appreciating, self-revealing hymns or âwordsâ. 28) vaak (vaak---the mother of all words or expressions) aeva(indeed)asya (itsâthis horseâs vaak) This part may have several meanings like (i) vaak is its vaakya (words); (ii) its vaakya (words) are âvaaakâ; (iii) its âvaakâ is âvaakâ. (i) vaak means the consort or shakti of the Soul. In soul, there is no differentiation; soul is soulâs power or consort; however, to describe the creation and duality, the seer has mentioned vaak as the consort or shakti or power of âpraaNaâ. (praaNa means when Consciousness is active. In praaNa there is both oneness and duality.) The Universal Consciousness who is One and only One, in whom there is no sense of duality, creates duality out of Oneness. ONE multiplies ONE into many by ONE. This power by which Consciousness multiplies is called (goddess) âvaakâ. The goddess with her sword cuts the Oneness into many. What bleeds out of this incision is âtimeâ creating the sequence of âbeginning, existence and terminationâ. vaak has given everyone a name, a definition a word. Everyone is created by vaak and controlled by vaak. Thus, whatever has been created from vaak it is the âwordâ or âvaakyaâ of âvaakâ. vaakya (word) = vaak +ya(controlled / processed). Every word, every creation, every definition is from vaak and by vaak. What we feel in us as our âinner skyâ or âinner spaceâ is the field of expression of our Consciousness. From there the elemental words, alphabets, quantum of Consciousness is created. Those fundamental or elemental words, or forms of vaak, coalesce to form cloud in our plane of feelings or emotions, in our heart. Then it rains and, we get feelings and emotions. We become desiring. Those make us deterministic, drives us into actions in our mind and further into physical work. Whatever we sense in our mind are made of words. They have definitions. They have appearance. In the innermost phase, it is vaak or Consciousness radiant with urge to express; further it is feeling, emotion, desire; then in mind it is formed idea, determination and action. It ends in physicality. This is why the Seer has said that the earth is the body of vaak. The entire physical universe is the body of vaak. (ii) Its word is vaak--- This means whatever this celestial horse is speaking, whatever is coming out of Consciousness is Consciousness or vaak herself (iii) vaak is its vaak --- this means vaak is the Shakti (vaak) or consort or power of Consciousness. 1.1.1 aharvaa ashvaM pUrastaanmahimaanvajaayata ahaH vai (the day is indeed) ashvam (the horseâs) pUrastat (eastern) mahimaa (magnificence) anu (accordingly) ajaayata (was born). The day is indeed the eastern magnificence of the horse and was born in accordance. tasya pUrve samudre yonI tasya (its) pUrve (in the east) samudre (sea) joniH (the origin) Its origin is the sea in the east. raatrirenaM pashchaanmahimaanvajaayata tasyaapare samudre yoniretou vaa ashvaM mahimaanaavabhitaH saMbhUvatuH. haayo vUtvaa devaanvahadvaajI gandharvaan arvaa asuraanashvo manuShyan samudra aevaasya vandhuH samudro yoniH. raatri (night) aenam (its) pashcaat (westernly) mahimaa (magnificence anu (accordingly)ajaayata (was born). Night is its magnificence in the west and it was born in accordance. tasya (Its) apare (in the other) samudre (sea) yoniH (origin) Its (nightâs) origin is in the other sea. aetou (These two) vai (indeed) ashvam (the horseâs) mahimaanou (two majesties) abhItaH (towards it /following it) saMbhUvatUH (were formed appropriately). These two indeed are its two majesties and were formed appropriately following it (horse). hayaH (As the horse named haya) bhUtvaa (by becoming) devan (dieties) avahat (it carried). By becoming âhayaâ it carried the deities (beyond the death). vaajI (as the horse named vaajI) gandharvan (gandharva), By becoming vaajI it carried the gandharva. arvaaH (As the horse named arvaa) (asura-s) By becoming arvaa it carried the asura. ashva manuShyan (the human beings). By becoming ashva it carried the human beings. samudrah (The ocean/sea) aeva (indeed asya (its) vandhuH (friend/companion) samudraH (the ocean) yoniH (origin). The ocean is its companion, the ocean is its origin. nirukta ---Inner meaning ahaH âAlphabets and words are the expressions of the Consciousness. The elemental stage of the Consciousness is the are the alphabets which are the components. They are called âvarNa matRikaaâ, âthe mothers as alphabetsâ. They join to create the words and the worlds. The alphabet âaâ the first vowel and the alphabet âhaâ is the last consonant. All the alphabets from âaâ to âhaâ have made âahamâ or âI amâ or âmeâ. Thus whatever is there, it is the expression of the Universal âIâ (or the vision of the Universal âeyeâ). The radiant alphabets from âaâ to âhaâ are making the Universe; and this âtimeâ, âthis periodâ or âthis moodâ of Consciousness that characterizes the creation is âahaâ or the âdayâ. pUrva is the âeastâ direction. It is direction that leads you to âpUâ or completeness by achieving what is desired. The direction which the Universal soul or the Sun or praaNa takes to rise and to bring in us what we desire is the âeastâ. The word âeastâ is from the Sanskrit word âIShTaâ meaning what is âdesiredâ. Thus with every day we get back the world which we long to live. So, the Sun is called âmitraâ in Vedas. âmitraâ means a friend. (It may be noted that the rise of the sun is the rise of praaNa and from whom we and the earth get our motion and time. This includes the diurnal and annual motions. Thus there is nothing wrong to say that the sun rises and moves. Whatever is our motion is the motion of Consciousness.) ahaH vai (the day is indeed) ashvam (the horseâs) pUrastat (eastern) mahimaa (magnificence) anu (accordingly) ajaayata (was born)â âahaâ or the day rises following the Consciousness or âpraaNaâ or âfollowing the desire or motion of Consciousnessâ. The appearance and disappearance of senses and feelings in us, the diurnal cycles, all the periodicity of time are due to the âpraaNaâ (the âConsciousness in motion or Consciousness flowingâ). âmahimaaâ is derived from the word âmahimanâ or âmahaâ which means the âmajestyâ or âmightâ or âgreatnessâ The eastern majesty or magnificence is the âdayâ or âahaâ. tasya (its) pUrve (in the east) samudre (sea) joniH (the origin) samudra (sea) = sam (perfectly, rightly) + udRi = rises---from whom everything rises to the surface. Another meaning of samudra (sea) is ----sa (He/it) + mudra / mudraa (print or impression)----where everything remains imprinted. This is why palmistry is called âsamudra vidyaâ i.e. the knowledge by which what is stored for you can be read from the lines imprinted on your palm. The great divine memory, the memory of the Universal consciousness, in which we all stay and remain imprinted and from where we are again reborn or recreated is the sea (arNava). These vast water bodies, the oceans, which we are perceiving in the physicality is the physical expression of this âdivine memoryâ. Thus we get back things like before after we get up from the sleep or when we are reborn after the death. raatri (night) aenam (its) pashcaat (westernly) mahimaa (magnificence) anu (accordingly)ajaayata (was born) tasya (its apare samudre (sea) (origin) raatri means ânightâ. raatri > rati + tra. rati = rata + i. ârataâ means the act of staying or remaining fixed in a place or in a particular status. The time when we sleep is also termed as âraatri âbecause during the sleep we rest in the âsoulâ. Thus in the sleep, we do not feel about existence or non- existence, but we can always recall after the sleep whether we have had a sound sleep or not. Also the word âratiâ means âact of sexual intercourseâ and implies the power of staying in a âfemaleâ or âshaktiâ. Also, raatri> raati----willing to give; rati also means ârestâ; like the word âviratiâ means âan intervalâ or âtime between two eventsâ. Thus âraatriâ is the goddess or the personality of the Universal Consciousness who âgives us or nourishes us while we rest in Her. As we are invigorated and animated and driven in the time called âahaâ (day), similarly we are pacified, tranquilized and driven to the rest during the time called âraatriâ (night). Our activities in the state of existence or âahaâ is controlled in the âsea located in the eastâ. In the state of negativity or rest the Consciousness reviews and keeps looking at the âsleeping oneâ. This reviewing centre is located in the sea at the other sea. (Upanishad has described every soul or entity having two partsâone remaining always awake and the other who wakes and sleeps; during the sleep, the waking one keeps looking at the sleeping one-----asuptaH {waking/ ever-waking soul} suptaan {who is sleeping} abjichaakashIti {looks at})----the ever waking soul keeps looking at its sleeping part!)(Brihadaaranyakaâ4/3/11) etau vai ashvam (horseâs) mahimaanau (the two majesties)abhItaH (following it) saMbhUvatuH (were formed). Thus, the day and the night are the two aspects of praaNa manifested as praanaâs majesties. hayaH (as the horse named haya) bhUtvaa (by becoming) devan (dieties) avahat (it carried). hayaH is derived from the word âhayaâ. mukhya (principal) praaNa or eternal praaNa has carried the deities beyond the death. This is also stated in Chandyogya Upanishad. The word âmukhaâ means âmouthâ, and it is that seat where all the activities of praaNa (or the sensory organs) are located. Since the senses are praaNaâs flow, so the Universal Consciousness is also called mukhya (principal) praaNa. mukhya is derived from âmukhaâ. mukha also means âprincipalâ or âmainâ. Also, vaak as vaakya or words are coming out from âmukhaâ or mouthâ. vaak is the Shakti of praaNa. Now,âmukhaâ is also called âaasyaâ in Sanskrit. In Chandogya Upanishad the seer has said that mukhya praaNa is also called âaayaasyaâ since praaNa is coming out of âaasyaâ or mouth (aasyat {from the mouth} yat{since} ayayte{coming out}). Thus, âhayaâ has a meaning like this: aasyat(from the mouth) hi (indeed) ayayte(is coming out). (Chandogya---1/2/12) The Consciousness, by whom we are also Conscious, whose vision creates our eyes and sights, whose act of listening creates our ears and sense of hearing and so on, is coming out of our mouth or from the void or sky inside our mouth as formed and defined words or expressions. Thus the seers have said: âmukhaat (from the mouth) agniH(the fire) ajaayataH (was created)â ---the fire or the all revealing personality of Consciousness was created from the mouth (of the Universal Consciousness). mukha--- mu / mud (joy)+ kha (sky/void)---the sky full of joy! haya---In whom âhaâ or the void ends (ya). âhaâ is the last consonant in Sanskrit and denotes the Consciousness as neutral space or void. So, where this void also vanishes into Oneness or Soul is called âakShara aatmanâ (Immutable Soul) {--âRefer Brihadaranyaka Upansihada : the conversation between Yajnavalkya and Gargi.} The divinity or the deities are nearest to the âakShara aatmanâ (Immutable Soul). The eternal praaNa or mukhya praaNa carried the deities to His oneness or to the Soul in order to take them beyond the death and He is thus known as âhayaâ. vaajI (as the horse named vaajI ) gandharvan (gandharva)--- By becoming vaajI it carried the gandharva: The word âvaajIâ is derived from the root word âvaajaâ. vaaja = vaak + ja ---what is generated (ja) from vaak. Also, vaaja = vaak + ja----from vaak everything is generated ( ja ). Thus the name of âap / aapaâ or divine water is âjalaâ meaning the plane that supports âlifeâ. âapâ or âjalaâ is generated from âvaakâ. vaak is also called teja meaning tad (that) + aejati (vibrates)---vibration of Oneness or the Soul. This vibration is the radiance or teja which splits oneness in duality. The cosmic radiations, radioactivity, electricity, electromagnetic radiations etc. all are forms of this teja and so also the warmth of life in us. From teja, apa or water (jala) is generated. apa is the water or the cooling, satisfying, bestowing Consciousness. This is why, we first feel thirsty and then drink to quench the thirst; this is why a fire is doused by pouring water; this is why the season of summer is followed by monsoon; this is why thunder & lightning are followed by rain; this is why hunger adds to the taste. (These are not the reasons from a simpleton. If you think this is unscientific, then you are missing a vital thing about how to read and interpret what all you are sensing in the course of your living.) Thus the seers in Upanishad have said, Consciousness first becomes vaak and then apa. This universe is apa or water or the âacquirementâ (aqua) of the Consciousness. HE/ SHE has achieved or acquired HIMSELF/HERSELF as the universe. Similarly, whatever we are getting or achieveing every moment, whatever we are sensing every moment, it is due to the Consciousness in us who is revealing as radaiance or units of expressions within us. This is vaak as teja. Then Consciousness holds an unit or the sperm in HER to develop it further. Thus vaak is named as ambhRiNI which means who carries (bhRi) the unit / sperm or teja (am). Thus as the cloud holds the water before the rain, so vaak is holding every sense before our sensing. Then we have feelings in the heart which is water. Further it acts in the mind and body (earth). gandharva---who are characterized by gandha or fragrance. gandha or sense of smell represents that faculty of praaNa by which praaNa holds us and provides stability. gandha = gam (to go > motion) + dha (act of holding). praaNa who is the active aspect of the Universal consciousness, whose activity is felt as time and who is flowing as life in us, who is characterized by motion (legs of viShNu) and expressions (vision / eyes of viShNu), has created a stability in us amidst this motion or dynamism. This is why we feel the âstabilityâ though we are aging / changing or in motion all the time! This is âholding (dha) the motion (gam)â or gandha or sense of smell / olfaction. This praaNa as air is entering us, through our nose in the process of inbreathing and leaving us in the process of out-breathing. This cyclic motion through the nose, keeps us alive and keeps us stable. Thus what is smell in our sense, is the earth and physicality in the external.The sense of smell has the role to provide the sense of being âstaticâ and âstableâ This is why what is physical and mortal to us is not so to gandharva; because they know them as the physicality of praaNa or Consciousness and not just the physicality. So, they dominate on the physicality and so they live in â ap / aapaâ or âwaterâ. Their consort or shakti is called âap-sarasâ. They are celestial muscisans and composers and fond of opposite sex. Thus teja or vaak becomes âapâ or âaapaâ. So, praaNa as âvaajI â carries the gandharva-s from the ap (water) to teja (radiance) and from teja to the universal Oneness of âuniversal soul (aatman) â. arvaaH (as the horse named arvaa) (asura-s) By becoming arvaa (it carried) the asura. asura (commonly means demon) = asu + ra. asu means praaNa :asu = a(aatman / soul) + su (flowing) asura = asu (praaNa) + ra (ra~njan -- colour). Thus âasuraâ means those who are obsessed or dyed by the colour or revelation of praaNa and in the process have lost the connection with the source (aatman or praaNa) from which everything is revealing. arvaa---This word arvaa (the name the horse took when it carried asura beyond death) is from the word âara. âaraâ means spokes of a wheel or the radii originating from the centre and running toward the circumference. Like the spokes of a wheel remain connected to the centre, so we all are remaining connected to our source or praaNa, however away we may be or whatever ignorant we may be. This why the seers have said---yatha araa iva rathanaabhau praaNe sarvaM pratiShThitam----like the spokes of a chariot wheel connected to the centre, similarly everything is founded in praaNa. Thus praaNa rescues us from the physicality and death by rising in us with this ârealityâ of connection to the centre. This is how âarvaa â carries asura beyond the death. (It is noteworthy that the word âarvaaâ in Sanskrit also means âArabianâ people.) ashvaH manuShyan---as the horse named ashva it (praaNa) carried the human beings beyond the death. As explained earlier, ashva means the flow of life (air), breathing, flow of Consciousness, flow of time. So, praaNa takes us beyond the death along the normal streams of our life. We human beings are balanced creatures. We think of good and bad, we respect lineage and relations, we are eager to know what is unknown and beyond death. This is how we are; our heart dominates over the mind. Heart is the place of singularity and duality together as in praaNa who is simultaneously one and many. Thus, we evolve from this state to eternity. The word âmanushyaâ (man)consists of two parts, âmanuâ and âIShatâ manu is related to the word mana or manas meaning mind. manu is the one who has got the entire universe in the mind. As âvaakâ becomes âvakyaâ or formed / defined words in our mind, similarly this entire physicality is the shapes and dimensions of the Universal or divine mind. When we start realizing this, our words become âmantraâ i.e. such words or such mind provide âtraâ or ârescueâ or reveals what is beyond physicality. This faculty, though slight (IShat) is inherited by the âhuman beingsâ. This is why we are âmanu + IShatâ or âlittle manuâ. Mind is the outer cover of praaNa. Where praaNa is directly acting on the physicality it is the mind (and the sun is radiant form of the divine mind as manifested in our space). Beyond mind are the realms of feelings, love, hatred, dualities. This is the realm of praaNa (in this context). In the external sky this is âmoonâ. As we realize the words and physicality as the formation of mind, we become more tuned to praaNa and spirited. praaNa means who is vision and view, who is hearing and sound, who is skin and the touch and so on. Then the word spoken, can bring in entirety of what is meant by the word. This is called âmantra chaitanyaâ. This is common in the elevated souls among human beings. Thus, from the mind we can enter into praaNa and we cross the death to eternity. (Notes: Deities (deva) are principally characterized by teja The root word of deva is div meaning (self)-revealing. gadharva-s are characterized by the joy and attainment acquired by living in praaNa predominating over the physicality. The human beings are balanced creatures. They apply âheartâ whenever they act. They live by comparing good and bad, evil and virtue. They are more oriented to deeds and works and its outcome (karma). asura-s are dazzled by the grandeur of the universe and not inclined toward the origin of the same. Thus they are physical. The goddess durgaa taking deities to eternity. The following quotes from Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada are noteworthy. (i) sa vaa eShaa devataa durnaama----She that deity is named as dUr â; dUram hyasyaa mRityuH -----the death remains away from Her; dUraM ha asmaanmRityurbhavati ya aevang veda---the one who knows the deity) , the death remains away from the one. (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1/3/9) (ii) saa vaa eShaa devataitaasam devataanaM paapnaanaM mRityumapahatyaathainaa mRityumatyavahat. (She, that goddess, carried these deities away from the sins which are the forms of the death by severing the death from them. (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1/3/11))

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