UX and Interaction in Virtual Reality

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    14-Apr-2017

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UX and Interaction in Virtual RealityCiro ContinisioTechnical Evangelist@CiroContnsciro@unity3d.comBefore we startTakeaway: Hints and ideas on how to create good user experience in VR, through the analysis of the solutions adopted by several VR games and apps. This talk is code-free42016 - The Year of VR(be quick though, because were in November!)Since last year, everyone has been saying that 2016 would have been the year of VR, and in part they were right.We have seen the launch of Oculus and Vive to the public, and soon PlayStation VR.Sadly, or luckily, its also almost over.5Takeaways of 2016No market for it... yet85k-100k Vive owners 3 monts after launch40k+ Rift on Steam (how many devkits?)1M monthly users on GearVR (May 2016), 5M Cardboard app downloadsNo standards... yetNo killer application yetSource: http://www.roadtovr.com/htc-vive-sales-figures-data-100000-steamspy-data/http://www.roadtovr.com/oculus-rift-growth-spurt-has-halted-htc-vive-market-share-growth/So, since its almost over, what are the takeaways of this 2016? One thing is sure, we know that the market is very small, with around 100 thousands Vive sold, probably 40 thousand active Rifts, and mobile VR that sits just in the tens of millions users.Theres no standard, like we have the controllers on consoles, which makes cross-headset development practically impossible.Finally, VR hasnt got its killer application, yet.6Get ready for 2017The good news is, you can still be part of the VR revolution in 2017,7VR killer applicationand possibly, create the first real VR killer application8Audience is fresh9No magic formula10Interactivity11InteractivityTwo-way flow of information, between the player and the game.The interactivity happens through the User Interface (UI) which, when put to action, defines the User Experience (UX).Source: the Art of Game Design by Jesse Schell12InteractivityThe User Interface is made-up of 3 parts:The real-world physical input (controllers) and output (screen, audio)The simulated game worldThe in-game virtual interface (often called UI)The relationship between them is called mapping. When it works well, the player feels in control, the UI becomes intuitive and the resulting UX is great.13Interactivity in VRMotion-controlled physical input (HMD and hand controllers)Now we are inside the simulated game worldNew complications to deal withMotion sicknessFatigue and session lengthLocomotion in the game world14Interactivity in VRis largely uncharted15Build a vocabulary16Creating Presence17Presence... a psychological state or subjective perception in which even though part or all of an individuals current experience is generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology, part or all of the individuals perception fails to accurate acknowledge the role of the technology in the experience.Source: ISPR - https://ispr.info/about-presence-2/about-presence/... a psychological state or subjective perception in which even though part or all of an individuals current experience is generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology, part or all of the individuals perception fails to accurate acknowledge the role of the technology in the experience.18Types of VR platformsMobile (Cardboard, Daydream, Gear VR, other plastic shells)Low processing power, less pixels on-screenSimplified inputTethered (Oculus, Vive, PlayStation VR)High power, but high hardware requirementsHead trackingMore refined physical interactionsWhen we look at the current VR platforms available, theres a clear technological divide between the mobile ones, which include []. Making content for these platforms requires less effort, but at the same time we have to optimise for phones, and try to maintain a consistent 60fps. Not easy.On the other side, we have the VR platforms that have a tethered HMD, [...], which have much more power but at the same time require expensive hardware to run. This greatly limits the potential audience, but on the other side they offer a more refined range of physical interactions.19Map VR platformsby type of experience20Types of VR experiencesOne-button/touch controlsCardboard, Gear VR, other plastic shellsControllers, hand tracking or gesturesOculus Rift, Daydream, PlayStation VRRoom-scale, full-body movementsHTC ViveMeans of interactivity in VR22Visuals23VisualsSame techniques on all platformsCubemaps, baking light, smokes and mirrors,Reduce post-processing effects, but absolutely use AADifferent fidelity per platformEven static images work wonders!24Motion sickness25How to induce motion sickness26Motion sicknessIn order of importance:Rotational accelerationRotational speedMovement accelerationMovement speed Roll being particularly badBuilding the VR legs28Motion sickness: some tipsStart slow to let the player get used to VRHave a frame of referenceFrame of reference30Motion sickness: some tipsStart slow to let the player get used to VRHave a frame of referenceShake that instead of the cameraScreen shakeSubLevel Zero32Motion sickness: some tipsStart slow to let the player get used to VRHave a frame of referenceShake that instead of the cameraPrefer fast and short to long but slowFast movementsSubLevel Zero34Audio35Audio in 3D gamesEasy to do in UnitySounds positioned in the 3D sceneSpread over 2 audio channels depending on listener positionReverberation filtersDoppler effect36Audio in VR - Spatial AudioSpatialisation is created mainly by 3 elements:Interaural time differenceInteraural level differenceSpectral filtering done by outer earsSource: https://developers.google.com/vr/concepts/spatial-audio37Audio in VR - Spatial AudioDirect soundEarly reflectionLate reverbSource: https://developers.google.com/vr/concepts/spatial-audio38Audio in VR - Proprietary SDKsThey offer a lot more control over sound:They create Spatial AudioAlter levels, and timePerform spectral filteringThey allow to define materials and size of the virtual environmentOften optimised (Google VR SDK for Daydream, which uses a diff. thread)Source: https://developers.google.com/vr/concepts/spatial-audio39General tips for good VR soundsUse mono files with no pre-built reverbUse recognisable soundsAnimate the sound sourceRepeat the soundUse complex soundsSource: https://developers.google.com/vr/concepts/spatial-audio40Input41GazeMost basic form of inputVery simple to implementApplies to all types of VRSometimes the only choice42Reticule + target feedback43Gaze44Involuntary interactions45Gaze aiming46Off-screen events feedback47Off-screen events feedback48One-button controls49Games for the motion impaired50Motion controls51Hacking the physics52Accelerometer53Gyroscope54Tracked hands55New Vive controllers prototype56New Vive controllers prototype57New Vive controllers prototype58NewtonVRSource:github.com/TomorrowTodayLabs/NewtonVR59Never use a buttonif you can go physical60Physical tool swap61Physical inventory62Physical inventory63Physical inventory64No real-life feedback65Haptic feedbackThe gallery66Perceive the Z axis67Z axis issuesThe gallery68Locomotion69Teleport and reorientThe gallery70Walking in placeSource: Eelke Folmer - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lWqA_4crAEA71Freezing the worldSource: Bumble - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0YxzgQG2-ECosmic Wandering72HolosphereSource: Frooxius - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSP5sjg9TIs73Trick the players mind74Unlimited corridorSource: Yohei Yanase - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THk92rev1VAYohei Yanase75Unlimited corridorSource: Yohei Yanase - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THk92rev1VA76Unlimited corridorSource: Yohei Yanase - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THk92rev1VA77Locomotion as a game mechanic78Budget Cuts79Unseen DiplomacyRedirected walking80Escher81Clipping through walls82Clipping feedbackSource: REFLEKT at Vision Summit - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=At_Zac4Xezw83Comfort84HMD comfort85HMD comfortNot all HMDs allow for the same degree of freedom in head movements.86HMD cables strangling the player87HMD cablesWe know the direction the player is facing, and the one he was facing before.The developer can try to prevent the player from entangling in the cable by using (audio) cues in the reverse direction. Not every gameplay can use this trick.8889Now the magic formula is90Challenge everything I said91The future92The futureNear future:Larger install base on all platformsNext-level mobile VR thanks to more powerful phonesMore online VRTracked objects in room-scale VRTracked objects94The futureNear future:Larger install base on all platformsNext-level mobile VR thanks to more powerful phonesMore online VRTracked objects in room-scale VRVR as a social experienceSocial VR96Entertain the audience97Entertain the audience98Smooth the camera!99Entertain the audience100The futureFar future:No cables on tracked HMDsReduced motion sickness thanks to higher resolutions and frameratesGeneral audience will be used to interacting in VRHololens will bring new interest to AR and Mixed RealityMixed RealitySource: Owlchemy Labs - http://owlchemylabs.com/owlchemyvr-mixed-reality-tech/The gallery102Thank youciro@unity3d.com@CiroContns

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