Toxocara canis in children

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Consequences of the Infection of Children with the Eggs of the Toxocara canis Parasite and Preventative Measures.

Consequences of the Infection of Children with the Eggs of the Toxocara canis Parasite and Preventative Measures.

TURFAH MauloodGroup: 6

Outlines - Introduction-Life cycle-Disease in humans: 1-Visceral Larvae Migrans (VLM): a- Respiratory, Hepatic and Cardiac forms b- Central Nervous System 2-- Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)-Epidemiology and risk factors-Preventative measures-Conclusion-References

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IntroductionCausative agent : Toxocara canis Infected animals: All canidsModes of transmission: -In dogs: paratenic hosts, contaminated food -In humans: fertilised eggs

Life cycle:

Disease in humans

1-Visceral Larvae Migrans (VLM):a- Respiratory, Hepatic and Cardiac formsb- Central Nervous System2- Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)

Figure 3: A child infected by OLM. (Courtesy of the Centre for Disease Control and prevention).

Epidemiology and risk factors:

The Netherlands 19% USA 14% Germany 2.5% The Slovak Republic 13% Brazil 39% The Czech Republic 5.8-36% Spain 0-37% Cuba 5.2% Jordan 10.9 % Colombia 47.5% Nepal 81% Figure 4: The map shows distribution of the parasite . (Courtesy of the Centre for Disease Control and prevention).

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Preventative measures1- Deworm pet dogs, pregnant bitches with anthelminthic regularly.2- Eradicate and control stray dogs3- Do not consume any food or water that may have been contaminated by T.canis eggs.4- Clean the dog living area regularly, all defective matter should be buried. 5- Restrict playing of children in outdoor environment, especially children suffering from pica.6- Teach children the importance of washing hands frequently.

Conclusions Toxocara canis is a worldwide distributed parasite. Infect primarily dogs.Dogs can be infected by eating paratenic hosts or other contaminated foods.Cause a disease known as Toxocariasis in humans.Humans are infected by eating contaminated vegetables or direct ingestion of eggs.Larvae migrate to different target organs causing VLM and OLM.Symptoms depend on the organs involved.The most effective preventative measures are: drenching of dogs and increase the level of awareness.

References

Anderson, A., Fordhman, L.A., Bula, M.L., and Blat, J. (2006) Visceral Larva Migrans masquerading as metastatic disease in toddler with Wilms tumour Pediatr Radiol, vol.36, pp.265-267.Bachli, H., Mint, J.C. and Gratzl, O. (2004) Cerebral Toxocariasis: a possible cause of epileptic seizure in children, Childs Nerv Syst, vol.20, pp.408-472.Bell, R.D. (1995) Lecture Notes on: Tropical Medicine. 4th edition, Oxford: Blackwell science Ltd.Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013) Toxocariasis: prevention and control, [Online], Available: http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/toxocariasi [Accessed: A07/02/2014].Fan, C.K., Hung, C.C., Du, W.Y. Liao, C.W., and Su, K.E. (2004) Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among mountain Aboriginal schoolchildren living in contaminated districts in eastern Taiwan, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol.9, no. 11, pp. 1312-1318.Good, B, Holland, C.V., Tylor, M.R.H., Larragy, J., Moriarty, P., and ORegan, M. (2004), Ocular Toxocariasis in schoolchildren, Clinical Infectious Diseaeses, vol.29, no. 2, pp.173-178.John, D. and Petri,Jr. W. (2006) Medical Parasitology, 9th edition, Missouri: Saunders Elsevier.Pinelli E, Herremans T, Harms MG, Hoek D, Kortbeek LM. (2011) Toxocara and Ascaris seropositivity among patients suspected of visceral and ocular larva migrans in the Netherlands: trends from 1998 to 2009. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.30, no.7, p.873-879.