Algal biotechnology Biotechnological approaches for production of important microalgae culture methods of microalgae SCP – Spirulina single cell protein

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  • Algal biotechnology

    Biotechnological approaches for production of important microalgae

    Indoor & mass culture methods of microalgae

    SCP Spirulina

  • Algal biotechnology

  • Why ??? Strain Improvement Applied to develop increase

    heat tolerance, salt tolerance; light harvesting ability and digestion activity

    Enhanced bicarbonate uptake (in Nannochloropsis salina, results in increased biomass and lipid productivity).

    Established a website for algae omics analysis, storage, and bioinformatics

    Production Efficiency Developed new approach for efficient CO2 delivery Demonstrated a new model for scaling-up low-energy ultrasonic

    algae harvesters

  • Enhanced heat tolerance in Chlorella sorokiniana1230 insertional mutants; improved salt tolerance relative to WT 10

  • Enhanced heat tolerance in Chlorella sorokiniana1412 mutants over-accumulating

    (5X) proline

  • Genetic Engineering of Nannochloropsis salina

    Increase biomass and lipid productivity through enhanced carbon assimilation

    BicA transformantsincreased biomass production by 30%

    BicA/ ChlBic double transformantsincreased biomass production by 46%

  • Indoor & mass culture methods of microalgae

    Algal culture techniques














  • Culture type Advantages Disadvantages

    IndoorsA high degree of control (predictable)


    Outdoors Cheaper Little control (less predictable)


    Efficient, provides a consistent supply of high-quality cells, automation, highest rate of production over extended periods

    Difficult, usually only possible to culture small quantities, complex, equipment expenses may be high

    Semi continuous Easier, somewhat efficientSporadic quality, less reliable

    Batch Easiest, most reliable Least efficient, quality may be inconsistent

  • Indoor/Outdoor Indoor culture allows control over illumination, temperature, and competing algae, whereas outdoor algal systems make it difficult to grow specific algal cultures for extended periods.

  • Open/Closed Open cultures such asuncovered ponds and tanks (indoors or outdoors)are more readily contaminated than closedculture vessels such as tubes, flasks, carboys,bags, etc.

  • Axenic (=sterile)/Xenic Axenic cultures are free ofany foreign organisms such as bacteria and requirea strict sterilization of all glassware, culture mediaand vessels to avoid contamination. The lattermakes it impractical for commercial operations.

  • Batch, Continuous, and Semi-Continuous

  • Figure 2.10. Diagram of a continuous cultureapparatus (not drawn to scale): (1) enriched seawatermedium reservoir (200 l); (2) peristaltic pump; (3)resistance sensing relay (50- 5000 ohm); (4) lightdependentresistor (ORP 12); (5) cartridge filter (0.45m); (6) culture vessel (40 l); (7) six 80 W fluorescenttubes (Laing, 1991)

  • Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    Microalgae as food and dietary supplements

    High-value products from microalgae

    (PUFA, Carotenoids , Bioactive compounds )

    Use of microalgae for biodiesel production

    Applications of microalgae in environmental


  • Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel.

    consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl,or propyl) esters.

    Biodiesel is typically made by chemicallyreacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean oil, animalfat ) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.

    Biodiesel production is the process of producingthe biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemicalreactions transesterification and esterification. Thisinvolves vegetable or animal fats and oils beingreacted with short-chain alcohols (typically methanolor ethanol).

  • The potential use of microalgae as feedstock forbiodiesel production has been receiving increasedinterest in recent years.

    It is advantageous to use microalgae for biodieselproduction compared to other crop plants because itwill not compromise production of food, fodder andother feedstocks derived from those crops.


    SCP are dried cells of micro organisms which

    can be used as dietary protein supplement.

    They are used as animal feed & can be used

    for human feed as protein supplement.

    Also called Novel Food & Minifood.

  • A list of the micro-organisms used for SCP production







    Candida tropicalis

    Candida utilis


    Spirulina sps.

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa



    Pseudomonas fluroescens


    Bacillus megaterium

  • WHY Spirulina ????

    Protein: Spirulina contains unusually high amounts of protein, between 55 and 70 percent

    by dry weight, depending upon the source

    It is a complete protein, containing all essential

    amino acids, though with reduced amounts of

    methionine, cystine, and lysine.

  • Taxonomy

    Systematic position:

    Domain: Bacteria

    Phylum: Cyanobacteria

    Class: Cyanophyceae

    Order: Oscillariales

    Genus: Spirulina

    Species: S. abbreviata

    S. flavovirens

    S. fusiformis

    S. gomontii

    S. gracilis

    S. platensis

    Spirulina is a photosynthesizing cyanophyte (blue-green algae) that grows vigorously in strong sunshine under high temperatures and highly alkaline conditions.

    Spirulina is symbiotic, multicellular and filamentous blue-green microalgae with symbiotic bacteria that fix nitrogen from air.

  • Applications. . .

  • THANK YOU !!!