Задача SLAM

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Рассмотрены принципы и основные алгоритмы для решения задачи одновременной локализации и построения карты (SLAM) для мобильных роботов.

Text of Задача SLAM

  • 1. (SLAM)-2014 robotosha.ru10 2014 .

2. 1 SLAM2 RGB-D SLAM3 (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 2 / 45 3. SLAM SLAMSimultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) , . SLAM? - ( ) ( GPS - ) , . SLAM . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 3 / 45 4. SLAM SLAM SLAM ./: , 3D , .. : , . ( ) - . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 4 / 45 5. SLAM SLAM , , , - , . : . ( ) . SLAM , . , . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 5 / 45 6. SLAM ( ) A ( ) (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 6 / 45 7. SLAM , , (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 7 / 45 8. SLAM B C. . ., , , . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 8 / 45 9. SLAM . , (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 9 / 45 10. SLAM A. . . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 10 / 45 11. SLAM B. C . . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 11 / 45 12. SLAM SLAM SLAM : SLAM (Extended Kalman Filter,EKF) SLAM (Particle Filter SLAM). FAST SLAM. SLAM (Graph-Based SLAM). (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 12 / 45 13. SLAMEKF SLAMEKF SLAM EKF, . , yt , xt miyt = [xt ,m1, . . . ,mn1]T 2D , yt 3+2n. 3 2n n , (i , ri )yt = [xt , yt , t , 0, r0, . . . , n1, rn1]T (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 13 / 45 14. SLAMEKF SLAM , , . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 14 / 45 15. SLAMEKF SLAM: , , c ^xt^yt^t =xt1yt1t1 +Sr+Sl2 cos (t1 + SrSl2b )Sr+Sl2 sin (t1 + SrSl2b )SrSlb , , (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 15 / 45 16. SLAMEKF SLAM: , EKFSLAM ^xt^yt^t^0^r0 ^n1^rn1=xtytt0r0 n1rn1+ Sr+Sl2 cos (t1 + SrSl2b )Sr+Sl2 sin (t1 + SrSl2b )SrSlb00 00^ Pt = FyPt1FTy + FuQtFTu (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 16 / 45 17. SLAMEKF SLAM: , EKF ^zi =[^i^ri]= h(x) , EKF:yt = ^yt + Kt (z h(x))Pt = ^ Pt KtGINKTtGIN = HPHT + RKt = PH(GIN )1 (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 17 / 45 18. SLAMEKF SLAM: , , . , . , .P0 =Px 0 0 0 00 Pm0 0 . . . 0 00 0 Pm1 0 0 0 0 0 Pmn2 00 0 0 0 Pmn1 (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 18 / 45 19. SLAMEKF SLAM: , , .^ Pt = FyPt1Fty + FuQtFTu, P0 =Px Pxm0 Pxm1 Pxmn2 Pxmn1Pxm0 Pm0 Pm0m1 . . . Pm0mn2 Pm0mn1Pxm1 Pm0m1 Pm1 Pm1mn2 Pm1mn1 Pxmn2 Pm0mn2 Pm1mn2 Pmn2 Pm1mn1Pxmn1 Pm0mn1 Pm1mn1 Pmn2mn1 Pmn1 (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 19 / 45 20. SLAMEKF SLAM: , , , . , . ,, , , . , , SLAM. (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 20 / 45 21. SLAMETH-ASL: SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 21 / 45 22. SLAM EKF SLAM, EKF SLAM , EKF , . EKF SLAM . , EKF SLAM, , (.. , ,). , . , , (3+2n)(3+2n). , , 1000 . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 22 / 45 23. SLAMParticle Filter SLAM: FastSLAM FastSLAM: SLAM . , , . () ( ) (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 23 / 45 24. SLAMParticle Filter: . : , , : , , , , , . . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 24 / 45 25. SLAMParticle Filter: Rao Blackwellized, . 2x2 . ( ) M . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 25 / 45 26. SLAM SLAM, : . . . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 26 / 45 27. SLAM SLAM SLAM , SLAM . . ( u) , . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 27 / 45 28. SLAM SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 28 / 45 29. SLAM SLAM . -. SLAM, . SLAM . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 29 / 45 30. SLAM SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 30 / 45 31. SLAM SLAM , SLAM EKF SLAM. , EKF SLAM , , . , SLAM, ., , . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 31 / 45 32. SLAM - , SLAM. : . , . ./ , . (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 32 / 45 33. SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 33 / 45 34. RGB-D SLAM Kinect (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 34 / 45 35. RGB-D SLAM Kinect (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 35 / 45 36. RGB-D SLAM KinectRGB-. 640x480 , 8 . : - + - (CMOS, 640x480, 11 , 2048 ) (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 36 / 45 37. RGB-D SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 37 / 45 38. RGB-D SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 38 / 45 39. RGB-D SLAM (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 39 / 45 40. RGB-D SLAMOpenCVhttp://opencv.orgOpenNIhttp://openni.ruOpenSLAMhttp://openslam.orgRoboting Operating System (ROS)http://www.ros.org (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 40 / 45 41. RGB-D SLAMROS (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 41 / 45 42. RGB-D SLAMROS (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 42 / 45 43. (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 43 / 45 44. http://robotosha.ru (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 44 / 45 45. ! (robotosha.ru) SLAM 10 2014 . 45 / 45