125
The Rise of Turkey Beth Hill-Skinner Spring 2012 Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise Of Turkey

  • Upload
    bethmhs

  • View
    2.140

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

 

Citation preview

Page 1: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey

Beth Hill-SkinnerSpring 2012

Page 2: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey

• These slides accompanied a lecture series given at University of California, Riverside Extension in spring of 2012.

• Some of the material has been deleted to avoid misuse or misrepresentation of the material.

• Due to the changing nature of international events, some of the information may not be accurate at the time of your viewing of these slides.

I hope that you are able to discover the significance of the nation-state of Turkey at this time in history. ~ Beth Hill-Skinner

Page 3: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is on the rise…– As a diplomatic presence in the world– As an emerging economic leader– As a democratic presence in the Middle East– As a labor force that is learning to anchor

its future with increasing support for education and encouragement of the entrepreneurial culture

– As a fulcrum of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

– As a supplier of goods to Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe

– As a key ally of the United States

Page 4: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• This beautiful nation-state has a

rich history and a powerful future.

Page 5: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Area: 780,580 sq. km. Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.77

million). • Other cities--Istanbul (13.256 million), Izmir

(3.949 million), Bursa (2.605 million), Adana (2.085 million), Gaziantep (1.701 million).

• Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.

• Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world.

Page 6: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish. • Population (December 2010 estimate): 73.7 million.• Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.

Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish.

• Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.

• Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--97.6%. Literacy--87.4%.

• Health: Infant mortality rate--23.94/1,000. Life expectancy--72.5 yrs.

• Work force (27.43 million): By occupation--services 47.1%; agriculture 26.5%; industry 18.9%; and construction 7.5%.

Page 7: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Independence: October 29, 1923. Constitution: November 7,

1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.• Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister

(head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4 years.

• Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.

• Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (327 seats), Republican People's Party (CHP) (135 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (52 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (29 seats), and seven independents.

Page 8: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFnNGdHei_s&feature=related

Page 9: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Government is a Republic.• The Turkish state has been officially secular since 1924. • Approximately 99% of the population is Muslim. • Most Turkish Muslims follow the Sunni traditions of

Islam, although a significant number follow Alevi and Shiite traditions.

• There are at least 12 million Turkish citizens who assert a Kurdish identity, making them the largest ethnic minority in Turkey.

• The role of religion in society and government, the role of linguistic and ethnic identity, and the public's expectation to live in security dominate public discourse.

Page 10: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of TurkeyPresident of the Republic--Abdullah Gul

Prime Minister--Recep Tayyip Erdogan

Minister of Foreign Affairs--Ahmet Davutoglu

Ambassador to the United States--Namik Tan

Ambassador to the UN--Ertugrul Apakan

Page 11: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• In the June 2011 parliamentary election for

Turkey's 61st government, the AKP captured 49.9% of the total votes, and Recep Tayyip Erdogan became the Prime Minister of a single-party government for a third consecutive term.

Page 12: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• The rise of Turkey in the 21st century.• Turkey is a key strategic partner for the U.S.• The relationship has been strained at times, but

Turkey remains an essential ally for the U.S. • Obama / Erdogan are said to be in regular

communication

Page 13: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Abdullah Gül is the president of Turkey. He

became the 11th president of Turkey on August 28, 2007, making him the first Muslim president of modern Turkey. He was also the Prime Minister of Turkey from 2002 November 18 to 2003 March 14.

HEAD OF STATE

Page 14: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• More than 70% of Turkey's population lives in

urban areas that juxtapose Western lifestyles with more traditional ways of life.

• Turkey is a large, middle-income country with relatively few natural resources. Its economy is currently in transition from a high degree of reliance on agriculture and heavy industry to a more diversified economy with an increasingly large and globalized services sector.

Page 15: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Geo-Strategic Opportunity in the 21st Century

Page 16: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey

• Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks.“

• Today Turkey is a powerful nation state.• It has been a member of NATO since 1952 playing a

key role many times for US forces; particularly for the Air Force.

• Turkey is a UN member and held a non-permanent seat on the Security Council from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010.

Page 17: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Then President Turgut Ozal began to open up the economy

in the 1980s.• There has been a customs union with the European Union

since 1995. • In the 1990s, Turkey's economy suffered from a series of

coalition governments with weak economic policies, leading to high-inflation boom-and-bust cycles that culminated in a severe banking and economic crisis in 2001.

• Turkey's economy recovered strongly from the 2001 recession thanks to good monetary and fiscal policies and structural economic reforms made with the support of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Page 18: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Istanbul, Turkey The Rise of Turkey Osher – 2012

Page 19: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is a unique mix of politics, culture, society,

and religion. • Although poised for geo-political influence,

Turkey is not without its problems. – The Kurdish problem– The Armenian problem– The EU problem– The Israeli problem – The Syrian problemThe Iranian problem)

Page 20: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is an ancient people and civilization dating

back to a prehistory of 500,000 B.C.• In 2012, Turkey is a confluence of cultures, geography,

civilization, and politics. • Turkey is poised to become a primary nation-state in

the coming decades. • Turkey represents a form of democracy aligned with

an Islamic nation-Muslim and secular • Many consider it an example for the Arab states. • Model might be an overstatement, but Turkey is

certainly an example.

Page 21: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Turkey has sought to be a member of the EU,

but has repeatedly been denied membership. • One of the key stumbling blocks to opening new

chapters is that Turkey has yet to fully implement the Ankara Protocol, which requires normalizing bilateral relations with EU member Cyprus, which Turkey has said it will not do until the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island are reunited.

• We’ll discuss Cyprus in coming weeks.

Page 22: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkish Republic created / born out of wars

• 1911-1923• 1808-throughout 19th century• Ataturk established the modern nation-state

of Turkey with the decided purpose for peace. • He recognized that ideology and rhetoric were

mercurial• Survival is predicated upon stability, economic

growth, and sustainability of government / social institutions

Page 23: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is keenly aware of the perils of

war• Peace and security are the leitmotifs for

the for geopolitical strategy• One look at Turkey’s borders and it

becomes clear • Not only asymmetric challenges but the

neighborhood is fraught with threats to stability

Page 24: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Istanbul• The largest city and former capital of

Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Page 25: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Istanbul• The Bosphorus is the strait that

connects the Mediterranean and the Black Sea• Separates Europe and Asia• Shipping route

Page 26: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Republic of Turkey• Turkey is a Eurasian republic in Asia

Minor and the Balkans; achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1923• Ankara is the capital city aka angora for

the angora goats that gave rise to the city• At the time it was declared the capital, the

population was est. 70,000 • Now, it is est. 4,000,000

Page 27: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Where are the Balkans?

Page 28: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Turkey is a state that moves toward

confidence-building measures• This is at times counter to U.S.

foreign policy.• Cultural relations are an imperative• Its heritage as a mix of cultures and

ethnicity result in a more flexible approach to foreign relations. (Syria)

Page 29: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• 16th largest economy? • Part of G-20• Partner in the fight against terrorists• Moving from traditional agrarian

society/economy to industrialized/globalized• Newly industrialized nations often see a

heavy toll in the lives of those who cannot retrain

Page 30: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Attila the Hun – 48-216 CE• White Hun Empire – 420-552 CE• Gokturk Empire – 552-743 CE• Avar Empire – 562-796 CE• Hazar Empire – 602-1016 CE• Uygur Empire – 740-1335 CE• Karahan Empire – 932-1212CE

Page 31: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Gazneli Empire – 962-1183 CE• Seljuk Empire – 1040-1157 CE• Harzemshah Empire – 1077-1231 CE• Golden Horde – 1224-1501 CE• Timur Khan Empire – 1369-1501 CE• Babur Empire – 1526-1858 CE• Ottoman Empire – 1299-1922 CE

Page 32: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

What is Turkey• The Turkish people represent an amalgam of peoples that

range from northern, central and western Asia, northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe.

• The term Turkic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people including existing societies such as the:

Turkish, Azerbaijani, Chuvashes, Kazakhs, Tatars, KyrgyzsTurkmens, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Bashkirs, Qashqai, Gagauzs, Yakuts, Crimean, Karaites, Krymchaks, Karakalpaks, karachavs, Nogais

• Includes civilizations that no longer exist:  Gokturks, Kumans, Kipchaks, Avars, Bulgars, Turghes,

Khazars, Seljuk Turks, Ottoman Turks, Mamluks, Timurids, Khotons, possibly the Huns

Page 33: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey

• Göktürks-From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership bound together the nomadic Turkic tribes into an empire, which eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts.

• Göktürks is said to mean "Celestial Turks". This is consistent with "the cult of heavenly ordained rule“

• According to Chinese sources, the meaning of the word Tūjué was "combat helmet”.

Page 34: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey

• The nation of Turkey represents a people who have Turkic lineage, but have also undergone cultural assimilation.

• The Oghuz Turks are those who moved west from the Chinese region. (9th c)

• The term 'Oghuz' was gradually supplanted among the Turks themselves by Türkmen, 'Turcoman', from the mid tenth century on, a process which was completed by the beginning of the thirteenth century. (tribe)

Page 35: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey

• In general they were a herding society which possessed certain military advantages that sedentary societies did not have, particularly mobility.

• Alliances by marriage and kinship, and systems of "social distance" based on family relationships were the connective tissues of their society.

• In Oghuz traditions, tribal bonds were the strength and thus society was the result of the growth of individual families. But such a society also grew by alliances and the expansion of different groups, normally through marriages.

Page 36: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey

• The militarism that the Oghuz empires were very well known for was rooted in their centuries-long nomadic lifestyle. Militarism ensured survival.

• The terms "Turkmen" and "Turcoman" were often used as a designation for the Muslim-Oghuz Turks (Azerbaijanis, Turks of Turkey, Central Asian Turks) in periods of history.

• Today (in Turkey) the word "Turkmen" refers to nomadic Turkish tribes (all Muslims), some of whom still continue this lifestyle.

Page 37: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey• The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Oğuz Turks

• In the 11th century, the Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became a new homeland of Oğuz Turkic tribes.

• The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a separate branch of the larger Seljuk Empire and to some Turkish principalities, mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia which were vassals of or at war with Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.

Page 38: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey• The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz

Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.

• First to convert to Sunni Islam (end of 10c)• 1038: The Seljuk Turks become established in

Persia.• 1042: The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.• 1073: Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.

Page 39: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey• The Battle of Manzikert in 1071 where the Seljuks and

Byzantines met played a key role in undermining the Byzantine Empire.

• A chain of events led to the collapse of the Empire. • The stage for expansion of the Seljuks territory was set.

Page 40: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

History of Turkey• The impact of the victory was much more than a simple morale

boost for the armies. It was one of the most glorious moments in Seljuk history, a moment of pride that would last for generations. Not surprisingly, the support for the Seljuq Sultan grew immediately.

• The burden grew heavier on the Byzantine Empire as more and more soldiers joined the enemy army and gradually it could not contain the masses of warriors thrown against the capital city of Constantinople. Manzikert was naturally cast as not merely a geo-political struggle but also religious, and it was the source of much propaganda for the cause of the Seljuq Turks who were not only boosted by the victory but were also boosted by the new aura of their leader.

• Sources from both sides exaggerate the details of the battle.

Page 41: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

What is Turkey• At present, there are six independent Turkic

countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and TURKEY. • There are also several Turkic national subdivisions in

the Russian Federation-  Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Khakassia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic,

Kabardino-Balkara, and Karachayevo-Cherkessiya.

• Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language.

Page 42: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Hobbesian reality / Kantian peace• Why talk to Iran?• The actions of peace can only begin

with talking• Turkey is a state that is committed to

dialogue

Page 43: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and its Region• Stability is the objective:–Black Sea–Southern Caucus–Wider Middle East–Fragility of EU economy–(export dependant)–Iran–Arab Spring

Page 44: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Secularism – Separation of church and state– Current politics evidence a power struggle between

nationalists, Islamists, secularists• Thriving economy – Edogan is credited with the economic progress– Progressives want to retain liberal freedoms

• Economic security is a force within Turkey• Religion is a counter point for those who fear

that secularism is eclipsing the Islamic history

Page 45: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Still struggles with human rights issues. • Economic problems• Problems with diverse populations• Nationalistic movements threaten democratic

character. • Air Force base in SE Turkey has been used for

years.• Was the central base during the Iraq War. • Remains important to U.S. today.

Page 46: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey

Page 47: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey

• Today Turkey is a nation-state contending with internal struggles.

• Before Edogan and his party won in 2002, Turkey had spent years under weak coalition government. The military was the powerful actor and political parties had been servile.

• Turkey had also undergone several economic crises, leading to a weak presence on the world stage.

• Erdogan brought a vision with clear steps to counter the army’s political power.

• Through the consolidation of a strong single-party government, Erdogan transformed Turkey into an economic powerhouse.

• It’s presence on the world stage is now apparent and growing. It is a major force in the Middle East, the Caucasus, the Balkans, North Africa, and beyond.

Page 48: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• By the 1970s, Turkey had become the most

Westernized of Muslim countries.• Threats arose to Ataturk’s vision as rapid

urbanization was changing Turkey's cities, and a free market economy had increased inequality.

• Voters were frustrated at what they saw as corruption within the political system.

• Many Muslims began to question Ataturk's belief that Islam should be removed from politics.

• Pro-Islamic politicians promised to correct the corruption and inequality.

Page 49: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey• Today with an economy growing at 6% + (2010/11)

some fear overheating. • Others fear that Erdogan’s renewed power will lead

him to anti-democratic excesses. • There is also a new source of uncertainty, emerging

from the Arab Spring countries. • For the last several years, Turks have pursued the

foreign policy goal of “zero problems with neighbors.” • In recent months they have been forced to realize

that they cannot, after all, be friends with everyone in the neighborhood.

Page 50: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey-Linguistics

• Khan-Turkish for Emperor• Sultan-Arabic for Ruler• Shah-Persian for King• Mehmet-Holy Roman Emperor• Universal ruler: Suleyman (after Solomon) Under Suleyman the Empire reached its apex.

Page 51: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• It replaced the Byzantine Empire as the major power in the

Eastern Mediterranean.• The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleiman the

Magnificent (reigned 1520-66), when it expanded to cover the Balkans and Hungary, and reached the gates of Vienna.

• The Empire began to decline after being defeated at the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and losing almost its entire navy.

• It declined further during the next centuries, and was effectively finished off by the First World War and the Balkan Wars.

• One legacy of the Islamic Ottoman Empire is the robust secularism of modern Turkey.

Page 52: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire-at its peak the following modern states

• Turkey• Egypt• Greece• Bulgaria• Romania• Macedonia• Hungary

• Palestine• Jordan• Lebanon• Syria• Parts of Arabia• Much of the coastal

strip of North Africa

Page 53: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• Constantinople was the heart of the

Byzantine Empire.• Became the capital of the Ottoman

Empire when it was conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II.• Necessary for the success of the

Ottomans due to location.

Page 54: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• Mehmet slaughtered many of the

population and forced the rest into exile, later repopulating the city by importing people from elsewhere in Ottoman territory.• Mehmet renamed Constantinople

Istanbul – the 'city of Islam' - and set about rebuilding it, both physically and politically, as his capital.

Page 55: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• Istanbul became not only a political and

military capital, but because of its position at the junction of Europe, Africa, and Asia, one of the great trade centres of the world. • Another important city was Bursa, which

was a centre of the silk trade.• Some of the later Ottoman conquests were

clearly intended to give them control of trade routes.

Page 56: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• There were many reasons why the Ottoman

Empire was so successful:• Highly centralized• Power was always transferred to a single

person, and not split between rival princes – The Ottoman Empire was successfully ruled by a

single family for 7 centuries.– The Sultan was the key to its success. – The role of the Janisseries was also indicative of its

sustained power.

Page 57: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire

• State-run education system Religion was incorporated in the state structure, and the Sultan was regarded as "the protector of Islam".

• State-run judicial system Ruthless in dealing with local leaders promotion to positions of power largely depended on merit created alliances across political and racial groups united by Islamic ideology

• Ottoman warrior code with ideal of increasing territory through jihad• United by organizational and administrative structures • Highly pragmatic, taking the best ideas from other cultures and making

them their own • Encouraged loyalty from other faith groups , private power and wealth

were controlled • Very strong military strong slave-based army (loyalty) • Expert in developing gunpowder as a military tool• Military ethos pervaded whole administration

Page 58: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• The economic strength of the Empire also owed

much to Mehmet's policy of increasing the number of traders and artisans in the Empire.

• He first encouraged merchants to move to Istanbul. ( some were forced)

• He also encouraged Jewish traders from Europe to migrate to Istanbul and set up in business there. Later rulers continued these policies.

Page 59: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• In diplomatic circles it was often referred to as the

Sublime Porte or simply as the Porte, from the French translation of the Ottoman name Bâb-i-âlî "high gate", due to the greeting ceremony the sultan held for foreign ambassadors at the Palace Gate.

• This has also been interpreted as referring to the Empire's position as gateway between Europe and Asia.

• In its day, the Ottoman Empire was also commonly referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, though it should not be confused with the modern nation-state of that name.

Page 60: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• In the 17th century, the Ottomans were weakened

both internally and externally by costly wars, especially against Persia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia and Austria-Hungary. There was a long succession of sultans who were not as good as the generation of Mehmed II, Selim I and Suleyman I.

• The scientific advantage the Ottomans had over the other European countries also diminished. While the Ottomans were stagnating in a stalemate with their European and Asian neighbor countries, the European development went into overdrive.

Page 61: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• Eventually, after a defeat at the Battle of Vienna, in 1683, it was

clear the Ottoman Empire was no longer the sole superpower in Europe.

• In 1699, for the first time in its history the Ottomans acknowledged that the Austrian empire could sign a treaty with the Ottomans on equal terms, and actually lost a large territory which had been in Ottoman possession for two centuries.

• Through a series of reforms, the empire continued to be one of the major political powers of Europe.

• The banking system was reformed and the guilds were replaced with modern factories.

• The Janissaries were disbanded, and a modern conscripted army was formed.

Page 62: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• Ottoman Empire was Sunni in expression, but

certainly not in a strict sense.• Leaders could be given rule based on meritocracy,

not blood line. • The Ottomans were conquerors, not religious

ideologists. • Safavid Empire was Shi’a and believed that leaders

must have direct lineage to the Prophet Mohammad.

• Their sense of being Muslim was a basis of consolidation within the ranks.

Page 63: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• Externally, the empire ceased going into conflicts

alone, and started entering alliances like the other European countries.

• There was a series of alliances with countries such as France, Holland, Britain and Russia. A prime example of this was the Crimean war in which the English, French, Ottomans and others united against Russia.

• By the end of the 19th century the empire was weakened to a great extent.

• The advent of nationalism and the yearning for democracy was making the population restless.

Page 64: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Ottoman Empire• The Ottoman Empire was an imperial power

that existed from 1299 to 1923 (634 years), one of the largest empires to rule the borders of the Mediterranean Sea.

• At the height of its power, it included Anatolia, the Middle East, part of North Africa, and south-eastern Europe. It was established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia and ruled by the Osmanlı dynasty.

Page 65: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Success of the Ottoman’s • Europe was struggling with internal issues• The Reformation created a fracture that prevented

consolidation on many fronts• The Ottomans were a plunder machine and shared

generously with those who were successful• The Christian message was aligned with the

righteousness of suffering and authorities elevated the holiness of poverty

• Only those at the “top” were well bestowed with the largess of wealth

Page 66: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Success of the Ottoman’s • The preoccupation of the European powers with

dynastic and religious rivalries permitted the Ottoman Empire to remain strong

• The Islamic sense of bonds between kinsman maintained a relatively stable system

• Ability to fully utilize ports through naval superiority at key trading locations

• Bureaucratic administration (paperwork/docs)• Dragomans who maintained ties to differing

peoples

Page 67: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire

• The success of the Ottoman sultans:– Leadership that inspired– Economic power– Ongoing conquests/pillages that fueled the needs of the

soldiers…the family systems….the hierarchy– The administrative state…power tightly controlled– The contiguous use and strength of the Islamic

religion/law code– People like to be ruled by a “winner”– The poll tax (jizya) on Jews and Christians

• Weaker leaders/sultans led to a multitude of ills within the Empire.

Page 68: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire

• Jews and Christians were referred to as dhimma. they were allowed to hold certain senior-level

positions, such as financial advisers or physicians.• Always required to hold only those positions

subordinate to their Muslim counterparts. They were even sometimes subjected to restrictions in dress, or were harassed by certain officials and neighbors.

• There were locations where social segregation between Muslims and non-Muslims was the norm.

• Stereotypes categorizing Christians and Jews were often utilized in proliferating the gap between them.

Page 69: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire

• The European states had countered many of the strengths of the Ottoman’s therefore removing the advantage– Population began rising in 16th c– Agricultural investment was increasing– Technological improvements– Productivity in textiles and extractive industries– French Revolution and seeds of “democracy”

Page 70: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire• In the latter stages of the Empire, many of the

administrative structures had become fossilized• The sultans were lacking in vision, leadership, and the

ability to contend with the changing world around them• Emergence from multi-ethnic empires in 18thc to nation

states in 19c• Nation states use the state as an instrument of national

unity, in economic, social and cultural life (not the ruler)• Successive wars and regional battles had weakened the

Empire• Failure to adapt to new revenues • World War I and the defeat of the Central Powers

Page 71: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Decline/Fall of Ottoman Empire

• World War I exposed the frozen conflicts as well as the untenable power of the Ottomans

• The strength of the Ottoman military had declined in the absence of revenues

• Janissaries were not as cohesive or as loyal. Had become a weakened institution

• Religious conservatism became a fall back position (fight for Allah and Islam)

• New fighting techniques (30yr war) and strategies using highly mobile field artillary

• The end of the Great War resulted in the carving up of the once expansive Ottoman Empire

Page 72: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurds and Kurdistan• The condition of the Kurds continues to pose a

threat to ongoing stability in Turkey and Iraq. • At the present, there is a relative stalemate• A strong central government in Iraq is in the

interests of Turkey. • Territorial integrity is of great concern to Turkey. • A divided Iraq, with shared oil revenues, is not

what Turkey will support. • Turkey would not like to contend with another

economic force-the Kurds.

Page 73: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurds and Kurdistan• The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) is the leading

front of the effort to establish a nation state for the Kurdish people (formed in 1978)

• The US and the EU have stated that the PKK is a terrorist organization

• Is involved with drug, arms, and human trafficking

• Has strong ties to Cyprus• Has it’s own satellite TV channel

Page 74: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurds and Kurdistan• Death toll attributed to the Kurdish / Turkish

conflict:

32,000 PKK members have been killed and 14,000 have been captured alive

6,482 Turkish soldiers and security officials have been killed.

5,560 civilians have been killed.

Page 75: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurds and Kurdistan

Page 76: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurds and Kurdistan

Page 77: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurds and Kurdistan

Page 78: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Kurdistan-what the region fears

Page 79: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

• Born in 1881 in Salonika (now Thessaloniki) in what was then the Ottoman Empire.

Page 80: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Under Ataturk, Friday was no longer a public

holiday.• Western legal codes were adopted to replace

the form of Sharia law that had been used. • Islamic scholars were forced under state

control. • Arabic script was replaced by the Latin

alphabet. • European dress was required for both men and

women.

Page 81: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Page 82: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• A product of his time and responded to the social

milieu• Well-educated (secular institutions)• Envied the ascendency of Europe• Feared the power of Europe to diminish the

Ottoman Empire• Wanted to see secularism as a means of

modernizing the people (before the end of the Empire)

• Wanted to see secularism as a condition of the new state (after the fall of the Empire)

Page 83: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Seeds of Secularism• The Tanzimât period was a time of internal attempts at

reforming the Empire. • Began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era

in 1876]. • The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various

attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire. • The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse

ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to bring religious and nationalist movements under a shared identity.

• The reforms also attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire.

Page 84: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• From his diary dated July 6, 1918, “…raising the

people to the level of the elite instead of reducing the elite to the level of people”.

Page 85: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Europe was a growing industrial power• European powers controlled parts of Africa,

Asia, and parts of every continent• Ataturk recognized that the Ottomans must

modernize, but there was a resistance within the structures

• One area that was addressed (and rebuked) was the role of religion

• His support of secularism was a result of years of thoughtful consideration

Page 86: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk-quotes• “Moses was a man who strove for the

emancipation of the Jews, who had been groaning under the lashes of the Egyptians”

• “Jesus was a person who comprehended the absolute destitution of his time and turned the reaction against the pains of his age into a religion of love”

• [Islam had not] “arisen as a result of the national evolution of the Arabs, but as a consequence of the emergence of Muhammad” [a figure of leadership and charisma]

Page 87: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• As a member of the military elite he felt a keen

sense of pride in his Turkish heritage• But he also witnessed the decline of his nation

as the power structures languished in outdated practices

• By the 19th century, the Ottomans had fallen well behind the rest of Europe in science, technology, and industry.

• Nationalism was also threatening the Empire as ethnic groups sought to have state identity (which brought political legitimacy)

Page 88: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• The Balkan War of 1913 illustrated the

importance of the region• Ottoman Empire lost territory on the European

front• Russia lost territorial strategic positioning in the

warm seas• Set the stage for WWI• End of WWI – left the region divided in to Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria,

and Albania– Kingdom of Serbia was renamed Yugoslavia

Page 89: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Balkan region-ethnicities in 1911

Page 90: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

World War I

• The triple alliance (Italy, Germany, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire) set the stage for the end of the Ottoman Empire

• Russia and France countered the triple bloc in 1894

• Britain remained isolated and benefitted from the wars between its competitors

• Yet at the spark of the war, Russia came to the defense of the Serbs and thus the system of alliances laid the ground for the Great War

Page 91: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Ataturk saw the dangers in not crafting a nation-

state that was a modern construction• He also recognized the history of ethnic and

religious wars• Ataturk was a reformist for years. • It was opportunity at the end of WWI that

allowed him to actualize ideas that had been forming in his mind for years

• Ataturk emerged as a leader in the midst of the carving of the Empire. (spoils of war go to the winner)

Page 92: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk• Creation of the modern state of Turkey was a brilliant

assessment of the way forward• The War of Independence May 19, 1919 – July 24,

1923 • Republic of Turkey was declared in October 1923• Rather than allow yet another war ensue, the strategy

of a modern nation-state was a solution that would set the stage for Turkey in the 20th century

• The alternative was a nationalist based conflict that could have destroyed any/all resources and result in a further deterioration of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire (Think Iraq)

Page 93: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

• Ataturk was a reformist for years. • It was opportunity at the end of WWI that

allowed him to actualize ideas that had been forming in his mind for years

• Ataturk had an excitement as the new leader of Turkey and determined to craft a state that would be able to contend with the modern world

• “Gentleman, sovereignty has never been given to any nation by scholarly disputation. It is always taken by force and with coercion.”

• Read “The Turkish Ordeal” –Halide Edib

Page 94: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

• He likewise crushed the Islamic ulema who sought power in the new state

• Many saw the state as an extension of the caliphate.

• Ataturk saw different, “Turkey is a state governed by a republican form of government”.

• He abolished the caliphate, the sultanate, Ottoman Ministry of Religious Endowments, closed the sharia courts, shut down mosque colleges, madrassas, and established a public education system.

Page 95: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

• Ataturk’s actions drove a wedge between the progressives and the traditionalists.

• The Sunni Muslim Kurds were most offended.• The Shiites in E. Anatolia were suspicious of a

“secular” government led by mostly Sunni persons

• Nationalism was not familiar, but Ataturk pushed forward and overwhelmed all challenges.

• It was established that, “…accomodation between the ideas of constitutional democracy and individual liberty and religious devotion.”

Page 96: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Atatürk-The making of a nation-state

Sweeping reforms• Dervish houses permanently closed• Ridiculed the fez and reportedly called it the “headwear

of a barbarous, backward people”. • Denounced the long black outer shawl and veil women

had been wearing for several years as a religiously conservative symbol.

• Stated of the new state that there was a need to make use of all its human potential, including women, “two kinds of human beings, called men and women…in order to progress, the nation needed the involvement of both.”

Page 97: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

• On December 26, 1925, the international 24-hour clock was established in Turkey.

• On the same day, the Western calendar , the calendar of advanced nations replaced the Islamic calendar.

• Arabic script was retired and Roman script was adopted.

• His focus was on literacy. • Encouraged industry as an economic base.

Page 98: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

• Ataturk and his allies would not be stopped by “religious backwardness”

• The new state must emphasize science, modernization, and national identity.

• An assassination attempt on Ataturk’s life (1926) resulted in government tribunals called the Independence Tribunals to ensure that pockets of dissent were dealt with quickly.

Page 99: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Cyprus• The EU accession of Cyprus has complicated the

image that Turkey likes to cultivate.• Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to

prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes.

• A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives.

Page 100: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkish-Cypriot Conflict

Page 101: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkish-Cypriot Conflict• Between September 1570 and August 1571 it

was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, starting three centuries of Turkish rule over Cyprus.

• 1878 Congress of Berlin resulted in the Cyprus Convention, a secret agreement granting Great Britain administrative control of the island.

• Yet, it was to remain an Ottoman possession.• WWI, Britain reneged & in 1925 it was declared

to be a colony of the crown. • Riots ensued on the island.

Page 102: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkish-Cypriot Conflict• The island developed a “split” people• Those who preferred the

Ottoman/Turkic/Islamic way of life and religion• Those who preferred the Greco/Christian way of

life.• Treaties have held and been broken.• Threat of civil war have periodically arisen.• Turkey invaded in 1974.• Attempts to create a United Cyprus have failed.

Page 103: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkish-Cypriot Conflict

Page 104: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and the EU• The binary interpretation of Turkey’s foreign

policy as well as domestic decisions evidence that unwillingness of the U.S. and the EU to relinquish particular powers. (not referring to necessary powers)

• The relationship with the EU is colored by the past and the prospect of the present.

Page 105: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Human Rights Issues

A matter of interpretation?Based on which law code?

• Impunity of military elite• More independent judiciary• Freedom of political parties (Islamists and

separatist outlawed) • Civil law fully adhered to: women,

children, torture, journalists, and ethnic groups

Page 106: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and EU • 2002-2007– 230-660billion GDP– 36-125 billion exports– 14%-1% budget deficit

• EU accession process gave investors confidence• Germany and France were against Turkey as a

member of the EU• Turkey membership was stalled• Cyprus became a signature reason

Page 107: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Human Rights Issues-Orhan Pamuk• In 2005, Orhan Pamuk was put on trial in Turkey

after he made a statement regarding the Armenian Genocide and mass killing of Kurds in the Ottoman Empire. His intention, according to the author himself, had been to highlight issues relating to freedom of speech (or lack thereof) in the country of his birth.

• The ensuing controversy featured the burning of Pamuk's books at rallies.

Page 108: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Human Rights Issues• In the interview, Pamuk stated,

"Thirty thousand Kurds have been killed here, and a million Armenians. And almost nobody dares to mention that. So I do.”

Page 109: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey-present• Turkey represents the movement from a unipolar world to the inevitable global shift toward

multipolarity. • Turkey’s rising independence and more muscular stance

in global affairs is the outcome of a range of strategies.• The AKP (Justice and Development Party, led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has managed the economic rise

of Turkey• Erdoğan inherited a debt of $23.5 billion to the IMF,

which has been reduced to $6.1 billion in 2010. • He decided not to sign a new deal. Turkey's debt to the

IMF will be completely paid off in 2013

Page 110: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Region Problems Radiate• Throughout the course of human history

international borders have been realigned by war, strife, and political jostling.

• This often results in the separation of similar ethnic groups, tribes, and families.

• There have also been times however when ethnic groups are incapable of living together and redraw national borders because of strife between the sides.

• This is the case regarding the nations of Georgia and South Ossetia.

Page 111: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey-present

• 2007 saw a rise in tensions between secularists and Islamists.

• On 9/27/2007 Ergogan publically stated that, “antisemitism is a crime against humanity.”

• He followed up with, “Islamophobia is also a crime again humanity.”

• The head scarf has become a political symbol. • Edorgan does not want to encourage this.• Military sees itself as protector of the state and

Ataturk’s vision• Secularism is to be a form of governance that remains

equidistant from all expressions of religion.

Page 112: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and the Arab Spring • Has played critical role through out the

revolutionary movements nominally referred to as the Arab Spring.

• Poised to capitalize on the changes in the Arab States from an economic standpoint.

• Has balanced Iran’s position.• Serves as a model for other Islamic states in

crafting a more advanced progressive form of government.

Page 113: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Syria • Turkey has long served as the sole “go-between” for

Syria and Israel• Shuttle diplomacy for indirect negotiations had been

the contribution that Turkey played • Both countries have/had trust with Turkey• Borders, territories, security, water,

normalization….remain the core of the conflict• Turkey’s fractured relationship with Israel following

the flotilla incident in 2010 has negatively impacted the ability of Turkey to serve a constructive role in the region

Page 114: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and IsraelMay 18, 2012 at 2:23 PM • NICOSIA, Cyprus, May 18 (UPI) -- The dispute between

Turkey and Israel over major natural gas fields under the eastern Mediterranean escalated sharply after Ankara scrambled F-16s to intercept an Israeli aircraft over Turkish-controlled northern Cyprus, where Ankara has started exploratory drilling.

http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2012/05/18/Turkey-warns-Israel-over-airspace-violations/UPI-78551337365388/

Page 115: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Israel

• Turkey and Israel have maintained a strong alliance for decades.

• Not just the governments but the people. • Shared in common were a democratic form of

government, partnerships with the west, restraint for religious influence at the state level, and a mutual respect for one another in the midst of the Middle East tensions.

• The military to military relationship was solid with the sharing of intel and resources.

• For the U.S. this relationship has been a base of Middle East stability during the era when Turkey and Israel (Egypt) were allied.

Page 116: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Israel

• Israel’s December 2008 offensive in Gaza strained relations as Turkey took an increasingly public stance on the crackdown. (Turkey along with many other nation states).

• Erdogan outburst at Davos 2009• The response of the U.S.-Jewish lobby to back

Armenian efforts to have the 1915 incidents recognized as "genocide" as a result of the public confrontation between the Turkish prime minister and Israeli president in Davos raised tensions.

Page 117: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Israel

• May 2010 saw a further deterioration of relations between these two key states when Israeli soldiers boarded a vessel owned by the Turkish nongovernmental organization.

• The Humanitarian Relief Foundation (IHH) was part of a six-ship flotilla sailing to Gaza with the declared intention of breaking Israel’s naval blockade, and killed eight Turkish citizens and a Turkish-American.

• Turkey immediately recalled its ambassador in Tel Aviv.

Page 118: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Israel• The flotilla incident in 2010 fractured

relations between the two democracies in the Middle East. • The Erdogan –Netanyahu relationship is

tense, which is an undesirable state of affairs. • The region has long been steadied by the

alliance between the two democratic states in the midst of autocratic regimes.

Page 119: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Israel• On September 2, 2011 the release of the UN secretary

general’s panel of inquiry report on the Gaza flotilla crisis last year contributed to the breakdown in Turkey/Israel relations citing excessive use of force.)

• Turkey (Erdogan) stated that it wanted a public apology from Israel (Netanyahu). Netanyahu refused.

• Their relationship is representative of a tick-up in the rhetoric.

• But there are breaks in the tension. (10/2011 earthquake) First time to talk in 10 months.

• Few weeks earlier Peres & Netanyahu condolences to Erdogan after the death of his mother.

Page 120: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Turkey and Israel• Events in the Middle East change…and often. • Turkey has been at the forefront of the

Syrian crisis. • Relations with Israel could also change

quickly given the circumstance that necessitates these two influential nation states to cooperate and combine resources.

• The Middle East region remains attentive to the tensions between Turkey and Israel.

Page 121: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey -today• There is an uneven view of Turkey today. • The EU, Israel, Armenians, Kurds, along with

groups in the US are wary of the rise of Turkey. • Some say that there is an Islamist agenda to

rival the powers in the Middle East. • It would be naïve to gush over Turkey as some

have done. • But its future, given the ability to deal with

domestic issues is promising.

Page 122: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey-today• However, Turkey’s strength is fully weighted on

its macro-economic strategy. • While working at the moment, its weaknesses

threaten Turkey’s rise.• The domestic issues and financial insecurities, if

not addressed and remedied may challenge the growing power of Turkey

• As Erdoğan contends with the growing internal struggles, his maneuvers to balance the international with the domestic could fail.

Page 123: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

The Rise of Turkey-challenges• 1996 saw the rise of the Turkish Islamic party.• The Turkish Islamic party gained enough popularity to

win over 20 percent of the national vote and came to power in a coalition government.

• In response, secular officials clamped down on Islam's most visible symbols, among them the head scarf.

• While Turkey has a future that continues on the highway of rising power, its past may prove to be an impediment.

• Unless Turkey can summon the confidence to face it past, the fractures, and the nationalist movements that challenge its power.

Page 124: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Recommended reading

Turkey: A Short History. Roderic H. Davison

Portrait of a Turkish Family. Irfan Orga The Emergence of Modern Turkey.

Bernard Lewis Crescent and Star: Turkey Between

Two Worlds. Stephen Kinzer

Page 125: The Rise Of Turkey

Property of OutoftheBoxIntl and Beth Hill-Skinner

Recommended reading

From the Sultan to Ataturk: Turkey: The Peace Conferences of 1919-23

and Their Aftermath (Makers of the Modern World). Andrew Mango

The Ottoman Empire and the World Around It (Library of Ottoman

Studies). Suraiya Faroqhi