2. Change in House of Representatives Leadership today, 1/5/11 Nanci Pelosi (D-California) out, Ralph Boehner (R-Iowa) in
3. Definition: an example used to justify similar situations that happen at a later time BAV TERM: Precedent SET PRECEDENT
4. This happens RIGHT before we write the Constitution: Some states owed money after the Revolutionary War When they couldnt pay, the states seized their farms and took the land as payment Farmers in Massachusetts grew very upset One ANGRY farmer, Daniel Shay, (Rev. war captain) led 1,000 men toward an arsenal in Mass. and started fighting the state militia about his stolen land If this occurred today, what would happe? Under the Articles of Confederation, what could the US do? There was NO ARMY, to protect people in Mass. There were NO TAXES that the national government could charge to pay off the states debt There was NO PRESIDENT to step in and help! Shays Rebellion! Shows the need for the Constitution
6. Shays rebellion
7. GW won EVERY vote in the Electoral College Remember, the runner up is supposed to be his VP Had to have a separate election for VP, winner = John Adams George Washington: Elected using the new constitution!
8. Created a cabinet Issue #1: Washington needs Help
9. Sec. of State (in charge of US relations with other countries Sec. of the Treasury (deals with all financial matters) Sec. of War (in charge of national defense) Attorney General (in charge of all legal affairs) Washingtons Cabinet, then and now A cabinet is the group of people who are selected by the president to help him in his daily duties. To the right are the first cabinet positions, and those who served Washington then, and Obama today. There were originally only 3 cabinet positions. Today, there are 21.
11. Hamilton believed STRONGLY that the US should pay for ALL the remaining Revolutionary War debt The other members of the cabinet disagreed. Especially those from VA So they needed to COMPROMSE. Washington said he would move the capital to VA if VA would let him pay off EVERYONEs debt. Alexander Hamilton's thoughts on national debt Im Alexander Hamilton, first Sec. of the Treasury
12. Capital moves from NY to dc
13. Established the first cabinet Allowed his Sec. of Treasury to make a plan to take on all remaining Rev. War debt In exchange, he moved the capital the VA (eventually becomes Washington DC) Today: Whiskey Rebellion and political parties emerge Washington Review
14. Changes in GWs cabinet
15. Now that Hamilton has the okay to pay off the war debt, he needs to raise taxes. And he decides first to tax imports and exports, and then, he taxes whiskey In western PA, farmers turned their leftover grain to whiskey Werent pay their taxes and tax collectors were sent in Whiskey rebellion
16. Washington was very upset about how these farmers were handling their frustration He went to solve the problem himself Personally marched army to PA to stop the rebellion Told people if they wanted to change the laws they had to follow the new rules in the Constitution Washingtons reaction
17. Washington announces to those close to him that he WILL NOT run for a 3rd term. No matter what So the buzz begins, who will take his place Different people with different ideas start to make their move The emergence of political parties Im retiring this time seriously! Seriously!? Me too
18. Political party: people with similar ideas about government, who join together and try to get their candidates into office The first two political parties had leaders who each formerly served in GWs cabinet: Thomas Jefferson Republicans Alexander Hamilton Federalists First political parties
19. Washington Says goodbye Farewell address
21. The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made. AKA: Another election is coming up and I have decided not to run again main ideas in his farewell address
22. I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. AKA: political parties are bad and we should NOT have them in America Farewell address ideas cont.
23. It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; A