African Salt/Gold Trade Sahara Desert merchant caravans exchanged salt for gold

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African Salt/Gold Trade

Sahara Desert merchant caravans exchanged salt for gold

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Formed by Osama bin Laden

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Alliance SystemSought to preserve balance of power but dragged their members intoWorld War I

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Greek who studied levers and pulleys

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Christians in the Ottoman Empire who faced genocide in World War I

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Thomas Aquinas

Natural laws based on reason

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Arms Race

Race to develop better weapons – U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.

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Atlantic Slave Trade

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Atomic Bomb

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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Aztec CivilizationHighly complex society in Central MexicoUsed unique agricultural techniques – including floating gardens

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Spark that ignited World War I; and, ethnic cleansing by Serbs in 1990’s

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Black DeathDisease carried by fleas on rats that killed millions of people in Europe

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William BlackstoneRights of Individual

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Símon Bolivar

Independence in South America

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“Peace, Bread and Land” – Russian Revolution

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Napoleon Bonaparte

French general who seized power, declared himself emperor and conquered much of Europe.

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Robert Boyle“Father of Chemistry”

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Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path

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Byzantine Empire

Eastern Roman Empire - Constantinople

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John Calvin

• New Protestant Church• Predestination• Faith as key to salvation• Strict moral code

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Based on teachings of Jesus as the Son of GodForgiveness, Mercy, Sympathy for Poor

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Winston Churchill

British Prime Minister during World War II – “We shall never surrender.”

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Cold War

20th Century conflict between U.S. and U.S.S.R. – never directly engaged each other in open warfare

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Columbian Exchange

Exchange of products and ideas between Native Americans and Europe

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Commercial Revolution

From local economies to Mercantilism

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Filial Piety = Respect for elders and order

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Nicolas Copernicus

Believed Earth orbited the Sun – Banned by The Church

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War to recapture the Holy Land from Muslims – Led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East.

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Marie Curie

First woman to win Nobel Prize - radioactivity

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Sudan – acts of genocide

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Declaration of the Rights of Man

French Revolution – consent of the governed and protection of rights.

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Thomas Edison

American Inventor – light bulb, phonograph and motion pictures.

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Albert Einstein

Time and Space areRelative

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Elizabeth I

• Shared power between monarchy and Parliament

• Defeated the Spanish Armada

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English Bill of Rights

Signed by William and Mary agreeing to many rights for English subjects

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English Civil War

War between Parliament and Charles I over supremacy

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Thinkers questioned hereditary privilege and absolutism

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Greek who showed that the Earth was round and calculated its circumference

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European Imperialism

European economic control of Africa, Asia and the Pacific

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Intense nationalism and belief in an all-powerful militaristic leader

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Wilson’s 14 Points

• Goals announced by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson

• Created the League of Nations

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Free Enterprise System

Free actions of producers and consumers – supply and demand – determine economic questions

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French Revolution

Overthrew monarchy and ended hereditary privilege

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Galileo Galilei

• Confirmed the Earth traveled around the Sun

• Was tried and convicted by The Church

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Indira Gandhi

First Woman Indian Prime Minister -- was assassinated in 1984.

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Mohandas Gandhi

• Leader of Indian independence movement

• Non-violent • Passive resistence

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Murder of an entire group of people or nationality – Holocaust, Rwanda,Darfur,Kosovo

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Global economy through communications, transportation and trade

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Glorious Revolution

Overthrow of James II of Britain and the placement of William and Mary on the throne. They agreed to a Bill of Rights.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Soviet reformer led to the election of non-Communist governments in Eastern Europe and dissolution of the U.S.S.R.

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Great Depression

Devastating economic downturn in the 1930’s

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Great Schism

Split in Catholic Church with two PopesCaused many to question the authority of The Church

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Greek Civilization

Major contributions to art, architecture, philosophy, literature, drama, and history

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Gupta Empire

Peace, Prosperity and Trade – The Golden Age of Hindu Culture

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Hammurabi’s Code

Earliest written law code of the Babylonians – promoted justice, but treated social classes differently

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Han Dynasty

Silk RoadCivil service examinationsPaper and CeramicsBeginning of Pax Sinica

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• Reincarnation• Many gods and

goddesses• Karma and Dharma

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Adolph Hitler

Nazi Party leader of the German totalitarian state prior to and during World War II

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Thomas Hobbes

Man is “nasty and brutish” and need an authority to keep order – Wrote Leviathan

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Genocide of Jews and others by Nazis in World War II

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Human Rights

Rights that all people possess

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Hundred Years’ War• War between

England and France over succession to the French throne

• Brought an end to feudalism

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Inca Civilization

Pre-Columbian civilization in Andes Mountains

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Industrial Revolution

Began in EnglandMoved production from home to factoryand from hand to machine

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Founded by MuhammadFive Pillars of FaithOne God – AllahShare wealth between rich and poor

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IsraelIn 1948, the U.N. partitioned Palestine into 2 states – Israel and Palestine. Five neighboring Arab nations declared war on Israel.

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John Paul II

• Popular 20th Century Pope

• Helped end Communism in Eastern Europe

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Justinian’s Code of LawsIn Byzantium, Justinian collected all Roman laws and organized them into a single code

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Korean War1950’s – Communist North Korea invaded South Korea – United States and United Nations intervened

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Las Madres de la Playas de Mayo

Argentine mothers who demanded the government reveal the whereabouts of children who mysteriously disappeared in the 1980’s.

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League of Nations

• Proposed by Woodrow Wilson

• Created by the Treaty of Versailles

• Failed to stop war

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Limited Monarchy

Monarch shares power with Parliament

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John Locke

• Power comes from consent of the governed

• People have the right to overthrow abusive government

• Two Treatises of Civil Government

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Magna Carta

In 1215, King John of England guaranteed right to a trial by jury and consent of a council of nobles needed for any new taxes.

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Nelson Mandela

• Imprisoned for speaking out against apartheid

• South Africa’s first black President

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Economic system of feudal Europe – self-sufficient manors

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Karl Marx

Believed workers would eventually overthrow their capitalist bosses.

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Mauryan Empire

Emperor Asoka converted to BuddhismImproved roads, build hospitals, and encouraged education.

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Mayan Civilization

Pre-Columbian civilization in Guatemala and YucatanBuilders and creators of a numbering system

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Golda Meir

First woman Prime Minister of Israel

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Civilians adopt military values and goals and become over-relianton military advisors – led to the outbreak of World War I

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Ming Dynasty

• Followed the Mongols

• Moved China’s capital to Beijing

• Ruled for 300 years of peace and prosperity

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System of government in which political power is inherited.

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Belief in one GodShared by Judaism, Christianity and Islam

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Baron de Montesquieu• Separation of Powers –

Executive, Legislative, and Judicial

• Wrote The Spirit of Laws

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Benito Mussolini• Italian leader during

World War II• Fascist state –

controlled the press, abolishing unions, and outlawing strikes

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Napoleonic Wars•Wars between

Napoleon of France and the rest of Europe• Spread the

ideals of the French Revolution

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Printing Press• Johann Gutenberg• Movable type• Helped spread the

ideas of the Protestant Reformation

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Nationalism• Each

nationality is entitled to its own government and homeland• A cause of

World War I

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Neolithic Revolution

When people learned how to plant and grow crops, and herd animals

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Isaac Newton

Discovered laws of gravityUniverse acts according to certain “fixed and fundamental” laws

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Protestant Reformation

Led by Martin Luther – Many Christians left the Catholic Church for Protestant Churches

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Greek mathematician - Advances in geometry

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Qin Dynasty

• Qin Shi Huangdi – China’s first emperor• Unified China, built roads and canals• Constructed the Great Wall to protect

the empire

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Radical Islamic Fundamentalism

Reaction by radical Muslims against Western valuesSeek to return to strict Islamic values and rules

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A rebirth of European culture that started in Italy – spirit of inquiry – rediscovery of classical learning – improvements in painting and architecture

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A system of government by representatives.

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Normandy Landing

Largest amphibious assault in history - Allied troops landed at Normandy to retake France from the Nazis

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Roman Civilization

Absorbed Greek learning – known for engineering skills, rule of law, andThe Rise of Christianity

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October Revolution of 1917• Revolution in 1917• Bolsheviks seized

power in Russia• Russia became a

Communist nation

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Rule by a few, powerful people.

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Ottomans• Turkish nomads from

Central Asia• Ruled the Islamic world of

the 13th century• Conquered Constantinople

in 1453

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Panama Canal

Built by the United States in Mesoamerica to provide a short water route between the Atlantic and Pacific


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Popular Sovereignty

Ultimate power rests on the

consent of the people being


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Louis Pasteur

Scientist found that most diseases are caused by germsDeveloped new vaccinesPasteurization = killing germs by heating.

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Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941 – surprise attack by Japanese on the U.S. fleet in Hawaii that brought the U.S. into World War II

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Fall of the Roman Empire

In 476 – Rome was overrun by invading barbarian tribes Followed by the Dark Ages – a period of great turmoil in Europe

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Jean Jacques Rousseau• Enlightenment Philosopher• Government should follow the

will of the people• Inspired the French Revolution

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African nation that experienced genocide against its Tutsi population by the Hutus.

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Scientific RevolutionRejected traditional teaching of the ChurchIntroduced the Scientific Method – observing nature and testing hypotheses

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September 11, 2001

Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked commercial airliners and crashed them into the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, killing thousands of Americans.

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Natan Sharansky

•Russian dissident• Founder of Refusenik

Movement• Imprisoned for

speaking out for human rights in USSR

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Religion developed in Northern IndiaSikhs believe in one God who can only be known through meditation

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Silk Road

Trade route connecting China to the Roman Empire. China exported silk, porcelain and tea.

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Adam Smith

Wrote Wealth of NationsAttacked mercantilismPromoted competition and the division of labor and free market system

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Government should pass laws to stop abuses of workers and should even take over some businesses

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Song Dynasty

Period of great social and economic progress in ChinaFirst use of paper currency and standardized coins

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Joseph StalinCommunist leader following Lenin;Purged government of his opponents;Established a totalitarian state;Resisted Hitler and started the Cold War

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Suez CanalProvided a shorter route from Europe to East Africa, India, and East Asia. Served as a lifeline between Britain and its colonies, especially India.

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Tang Dynasty

Suppressed peasant uprisings,Reunited China,Revived feudal relationships and brought peace and prosperity.

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Ten Commandments

Commandments in the Jewish religion prohibiting stealing, murder and other forms of immoral behavior.

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Mother Teresa

Catholic nun who devoted her life to helping the poor and homeless in IndiaAwarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

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Acts of violence against innocent civilians such as hijacking planes and attacking schools to make demands

on a hostile government.

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Margaret Thatcher

First woman elected Prime Minister of Great Britain

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A society governed by religious leaders – Present day Iran is an example.

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Tiananmen Square

Chinese students were fired on by tanks while leading peaceful demonstrations for personal freedom and democracy.

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Hedeki Tojo

Led the Japanese government during World War IIConvinced the emperor to launch a surprise attack on the United States

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TotalitarianismA government that controls all aspects of life – government, military, schools, and other organizations.

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Trench Warfare

During World War I, ditches were dug to create fortified positions.

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United Nations

Began in 1945,It’s purpose is to maintain world peace and encourage cooperation among nations.

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Versailles Treaty

Treaty between Allied Powers and Germany that ended World War I.

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Queen Victoria

Monarch who doubled Britain’s size and favored social reforms.

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Vietnam War

War between Communist North Vietnam and U.S. supported South Vietnam. Started with the Viet Cong launching guerilla warfare against South Vietnam.

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Enlightenment thinker;Views on religious toleration and intellectual freedom influence leaders of the American and French Revolutions.

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Lech WalesaPolish union leader who organized the Solidarity Movement. Led a workers’ strike that led to free elections and the end of Communist rule in Poland.

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James Watt

Scottish inventor who improved the steam engine and made steam power available to run factories and machines.

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William Wilberforce

Reformer who led the fight to abolish the slave trade and slavery.

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World War I

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand set off a chain reaction that involved most nations of Europe and later, the United State.

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World War II

Most destructive conflict in historyKilled an estimated 70 millionLaunched when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939.

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Mao Zedong•Chinese Communist

leader who drove Nationalists out of China.•Great Leap Forward•Cultural Revolution

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Zhou Dynasty

Zhou rulers justified their rule by the Mandate of Heaven – If a ruler was selfish and ruthless, Heaven would overthrow him.