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Factual programming: Learning outcome 1 Task 2: Codes and convention

Factual programming

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  • 1. Studio newsreaders are people hired by TV. Companies and have to sit behind a desk and read outfactual news to the world. The studio part means that they only report news from the studio which is usually owned by thenews company. The large majority of studio news readers keep serious faces and dress very formally and keep aconstant eye contact with the camera. This makes the news channel look more serious butinformative. A great example of this would be BBC news because in that news show they all dress in suits anddresss when presenting the news and they also keep straight faces and constant eye contact. It is important to use eye contact when reading the news because if you do the audience will feellike you are informing them as if you would in a face to face conversation if you dont then theaudience will think that you being rude and uninterested in the news you are reading out. The same goes for how the studio newsreaders present themselves because if they are in casualclothes like jeans and a hoodie then that would be informal to the audience however they wouldseem formal to the audience if they were dressed in suits. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dRz4CCswlA

2. Field reporters are pretty much like studio newsreaders except they report news fromoutside of the studio. They usually report live from areas outside the studio to the studiowhen the news show is running. They are also known as off-scene reporters. The scenes they go live at are usually linked to what has been discussed on the news show bythe studio news reader earlier. A good example of this would BBC news, every night at 10pm when the show starts theyalways have at least one news reporter reporting live from a scene somewhere in the world. It is important when presenting the news to make sure that your surroundings are not tooloud otherwise if the audience cant here you they will most likely switch channel. The bestway to overcome this would be to do a sound check before going live. It is also important to look formal just like the news readers from the studio because youwould give out the wrong impression to the audience if you were dressed like a tramp,however if you dressed more formally (suit/ dress) then you would be much more appealingfor the public viewers to listen too and watch. Field reporters doing live reports on certain parts of the news makes the audience feel muchmore involved and informed where they can actually see in video what is causing all the fuss. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Jgfqw16kPY 3. Links to studio is where news teams on a certain studio may want todiscuss a news story with a different news studio who may have moreinformation to share or a guest on the show is an expert on the certainnews being discussed. Web definition is that they send a televisionstudios audio and video feed from the broadcast studio to a transmitter inanother studio. A good example of this is yet again BBC news because they use this allotwhen they want to a discuss a certain news story with another studiowhich may have an expert on the news story there. It is important to have links to the studio because it positively impacts theaudience because they feel more involved and like their being told to thebest standards possible because the news team are going out of their wayto get more information on certain news storys by having video chats withother news studios. It is also important to dress formally if involved with these links to studiofor the same reasons as the last few slides. Eye contact, straight face, nomovement must also happen to make it perfect. 4. The mode of address to viewer in our case means how does the media (documentary/news show) present and address itself to the audience to make the audience feel aconnection. A good example of this would be Aileen life and death of a serial killer because theproducer/ presenter filmed the documentary in such a way that it made us feel likeeverything Aileen was saying was being directed at us (audience). When she opened upabout her life to the producer we were feeling the same connection with Aileen as theproducer was. BBC news is also a great example because of the way that they have a routine which usuallyis exactly the same every day which is 1: A brief glimpse of what is coming up in the news. 2: Newsreaders greet viewers at home and then present the news. 3: After the main headlines have been covered the Local news readers then read their news. 4: And then finally the weather man/woman Because of the above routine the audience feels a connection and also feels morecomfortable because they know the layout of the how the news show will work. And if theaudience gets the routine stuck in their head from the connection then they will be able toremember every day what time the news is on and just switch straight on. Also when news readers are reading the news or presenters are presenting theirdocumentarys another key mode of address to the viewers would be to dress formally keepeye contacts and take their role seriously. By doing this the audience will feel comforted andthat there is a connection. 5. Interviews are an important role in media industrys. They are mainly used to obtain information oncertain subjects from people who are experts on the subjects or they can be used for finding out peoplesopinions on topics. Interviews give most T.V viewers the opportunity to find out information they wouldnever have known until they saw this interview. A good example is BBC Match of the day On this T.V programme they interview a lot of football players,managers, coaches, ect to get information out of them such as who played best in the match, was thisthe score you were expecting? or where do you think you could have improved on?. Those are just afew examples. It is important getting feedback from these people because football fans would want toknow why a player maybe played badly or why they werent playing in defence (out of thousands ofquestions that could be asked). These interviews are important for people because its usually the only waythey can find out whats going on with their favourite football club or players. Another great example was BBC news a few months ago when they were interviewing all kinds of peopleabout the student riots. The viewers not only got entertained and interested in what the people saidduring the interviews but it also gave them an opportunity to debate with what the people were saying. On a lot of news channels you also get experts who sometimes come on the show or do interviews withthe news channels to give their expertise on certain topics such as Global warming, Politics, naturaldisasters and many more. This is important to the viewers because it fills them with knowledge they maynot have known before which could turn out to be useful for them in the future. A brilliant example of Witnesses would be BBC news. News reporters usually do interviews withwitnesses on topics like murders, assaults or disasters. The most recent example I have seen is off awitness describing to the reporter what they saw happening when a 15 year old boy was stabbed acrossthe street from them. These kind of interviews usually have more detail in them because the witness saweverything first hand which was makes the viewers so interested because it feels like they are being toldthe story as exactly as it happened. 6. The inverted pyramid is the model for newswriting. It simply means thatthe heaviest or most important information should be at the top of yourstory, and the least important information should go at the bottom. And asyou move from top to bottom, the information presented should graduallybecome less important. This technique is used by BBC news. The sameapplies for the news show structure itself going from most important ordramatic storys first until it reaches the last news story which would bethe least interesting or important. I think this is a brilliant structure to use because that way as soon as theviewers switch on to the news they see the main dramatic news at thebeginning of the show which would captivate them and keep themwatching through out the news show. However starting with least important news first and ending with mostimportant news would have a bad impact on the audience because theywould become quickly bored if they switch on to the news on to hearabout someone talking about a cat being stuck up a tree. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0M737ygeLk&feature=fvst 7. You see actuality footage on every single news channel on T.V ( I am100% sure!). It is the footage that relates to whatever the news readersare talking about at the time. They usually do this by having the footageshowing on T.V while the news readers do commentaries over the top ofit. It is basically a visual aid to news that the news readers are discussing. A great example is BBC news because they are constantly doing newsstorys on Iraq and they use actuality footage to back up what they aresaying. The reason actuality footage is important to the viewers at home isbecause it gives them a vision of what the news readers are talking aboutgiving them a better idea of the story. If there was no actuality footage then it would be a lot harder andconfusing possibly for some viewers to understand what the news storywas about. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLiwQgCfncM&NR=1 8. Expository documentaries are documentaries that expose a personor topic, it is one of the four classic main types of documentary.Expository documentaries are well known for having acommentator talking over the pictures or videos and explaining thestory. A good example of this type of documentary would be Inside JobBy Charles H Ferguson and Audrey Marrs. The subject of thedocumentary is about the 2008 financial breakdown, which alsorevealed a lot of government officials using spending moneyunnecessarily which also enraged the world. This kind of documentary has a large impact with the audience thatwatch it because the whole idea of an expository documentary isto expose something that most people dont know about which iswhy most viewers would find it interesting and factual to watch. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzrBurlJUNk 9. An observational documentary is usually where the cameraman/producer follows a person/ people or items around to observe whathappens to them. There are hardly ever voice overs or interviews inthis type of documentary and the equipment is usually informal likehand held cameras for example. Long takes are used quite often aswell so that the producer can capture as much of the subjects lifeas possible. A great example of this type of documentary would be 16 andpregnant because the camera follows them around while they geton with every day life and deal with it. Viewers react positively with these type of documentaries becauseit is interesting just to watch what other people are doing in theirlives. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLiXS02Mj7U 10. Interactive documentarys is where the film maker/ crew interact with thesubject they are doing their documentary on. There is usually a lot of useof achieves materials such as news articles, footage and web information.There is sometimes use of voice over, usually be the documentary maker.And most importantly the documentary maker is visible in the footage andparticipates and intervenes with the documentary. A great example of a interactive documentary would be supersize mebecause the documentary maker is in nearly all the shots of thedocumentary and he is the biggest participant in it when he eats only fastfood for 30 days while the camera films him! These kind of documentarys to me and the audience are probably themost enjoyable to watch because of the amount of action usually going onin them (like supersize me for example). These kind of documentary arevery fun and captivating for the audiences to watch even though they areusually quite biased sometimes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LOvrkkj_T-I 11. Reflexive documentarys use techniques from fiction film for a moreemotional, subjective response. Usually use re enactments in part of thedocumentary if not in all of it, dramatic music may be included to keep thedocumentary alive. These kind of documentarys rely more on suggestionthan fact. A great example of a reflexive documentary would be Kidulthood whichis based on a bunch of youths in London who get the day off school, sothey steal alcohol, beat up the school bully and then at the end one of themain characters die This is meant to be based on youth life in Londonbut I feel this film/documentary was very over exaggerated. The audience love these kind of documentarys because they are lessfictional than other types of documentarys so usually result in being moreentertaining. Kidulthood certainly proved to be a entertainingdocumentary, if you could call it that. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mdoKD4gTQ2c 12. Per formative documentarys include the documentary maker and crew interactingwith the subject they are filming. The documentary maker would also oftencomment on the process of the making of their documentary. This type of documentary is often shaped into the narrative of an investigation orsearch which there may be no satisfactory conclusion two, so there is usually a lotof suspense throughout the documentary. The documentary itself will address the audience in a direct and emotional way My favourite example for this would have to be Aileen life and death of a serialkiller. The reason why is because firstly the producer is in a majority of theinterviews when he is talking to Aileen. Secondly there is a lot of suspensethroughout the documentary as to whether or not we think Aileen is guilty or not. This is my favourite type of documentary because the audience will be addressedin an emotional and direct way and will be given the option to chose how they feelabout Aileen. There is a connection between the documentary and the audience. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rExhihAZGxg